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Atomic Hist.&Struc.

Review for Atomic History & Structure Test

Proton Subatomic particle found in the nucleus of an atom. Has a positive charge.
Neutron Subatomic particle found in the nucleus of an atom. Has a neutral or no charge. Found by subtracting the atomic mass minus the atomic number/electrons/protons.
Electron Subatomic particle found outside the nucleus of an atom. Has a negative charge and orbits in clouds around the nucleus. Very tiny.
Rutherford Discovered that atoms have a positively charged center called the nucleus. Most of his work was done through the "gold foil" experiment.
Dalton Thought atoms made up all matter and atoms could be combined to make new substances. Used a cathode ray tube in his experiments.
Democritus Argued that atoms were the smallest particle. Thought they were small, dense, hard and constantly moved.
JJ Thomson He discovered electrons and proposed the "plum pudding" model of negative electrons scattered around.
Atomic Number The number found above the element's symbol.
Atomic mass The total number of protons and neutrons found in an element. Number is found under the elements symbol. The
Halogens Very reactive element group with seven valence electrons.
Hydrogen This element does not belong to a family and "stands alone" on the periodic table.
Noble gas Very unreactive elements. Family has 8 valence electrons and are all gases.
Transition metals Most of the well-known metals like copper, gold and silver. Good conductors of heat and electricity, often shiny.
Alkali metals Very reactive and have one valence electron.
Alkaline earth metals Very reactive and have two valence electrons.
Valence electron An electron found in the last electron cloud of an element that has electrons in it.
Periodic table A chart made up by Mendeleev that is used to categorize known elements. Elements are arranged by increasing atomic number and atomic mass.
Element group/family A group of elements that have similar properties and the same number of valence electrons.
Created by: chanteb