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Chapter 6

definintions

TermDefinition
atom The building blocks of matter.
compound A pure substance formed when two or more different elements combine.
covalent bond The chemical bond that forms when electrons are shared.
electron Negative charged particles that are located outside the nucleus.
element A pure substance that cannot be broken down into other substances by physical or chemical means.
ion An atom that has lost or gained one or more electrons.
ionic bond An electrical attaction between two oppositely charged atoms or groups of atoms.
isotope Atoms of the same element that have different numbers of neutrons.
molecule A compound in which the atoms are held together by covalent bonds.
neutron Particles that have no charge.
nucleus A distinct central organelle that contains the cells genetic material in the form of DNA.
proton positively charged particles..
van der Waals force The Dutch physicist Johannes van der Waals who first described the phenormenon.
activation energy The minimum amouhnt of energy needed for reactants to form products in a chemical reaction.
active site The specific location where a substrate binds on an enzyme.
catalyst A substance that lowers the activation energy needed to start a chemical reaction.
chemical reaction The process by which atoms or groups of atoms in a substance are recorganized by different substances.
enzyme The biological catalysts that speed up the rate of chemical reations in biological processes.
product The substances formed during the reaction, are on the right side of the arrow.
reactant The starting substances on the left side of the arrow.
substrate The reatants that bind to the enzyme.
acid Substances that release hydrogen ions when dissvolved in water.
base Similarly substances that release hydroxide ions (OH-) when dissolved in water
buffer Mixtures that can react with acids or bases to keep the ph within a particular range.
hydrogen bond A weak interaction involving a hydrogen atom and a fluorine,oxygen ,or nitrogen atom.
mixture A combination of two or more substances in which each substance retains its individual characteristics and properties.
pH The measure of concentration of H+ in a solution
polar molecule Molecules that have an unequal distribution charges.
solute The substance that dissolves in the solent.
solution Another name for a homogeneous mixture.
solvent A substance in which another substance is dissolved.
amino acid Small compounds that are made of carbon,nitrogen,oxygen,hydrogen,and sometimes sulfur.
carbohydrate Compounds composed of carbon,hydrogen,and oxygen in a ratio of one oxygen and two hydrogen atoms for each carbon atom.
lipid Molecules made mostly of carbon and hydrogen that make up the fats,oils and waxes.
macromolecule Large molecules that are formed by joing smaller organic molecules together.
nucleic acid The fourth group of biological macromolecules are nucleic acids.
nucleotide Nucleic acids are made of smaller repeating subunits composed of carbon,nitrogen ,oxygen phosphorus,and hydrogen atoms.
polymer Molecules made from repeating units of identical or nearly identical compounds called monorners that are linked together by series of covalent bonds.
protein A compound made of small compounds that are made of small carbon compounds.
Created by: austinmcgruder16
 

 



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