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Chapter 25 Vocab

Vocabulary from Chapter 25 of textbook

Radioisotope Isotopes of atoms with unstable nucei.
X-Ray A form of high energy electromagnetic radiaion, emitted from certain materials that are in an excited electron state.
Nucleon Subatomic particles found in the nucleus, protons and neutrons.
Strong Nuclear Force A force that acts only on subatomic particles that are extremely close together, overcomes the electrostatic repulsion between protons.
Band of Stability The region on a graph that represents number of neutrons vs number of protons, that illustrates stable nuclei of an atom.
Positron Emission A radioactive decay process that involves the emission of a positron from a nucleus.
Positron A particle with the same mass as an electron but opposite charge.
Electron Capture Occurs when the nucleus of an atom draws in a surrounding electron.
Radioactive Decay Series A series of nuclear reactions that begin with an unstable nucleus and results in the formation of a stable nucleus.
Transmutation The conversion of an atom of one element to an atom of another element.
Induced Transmutation The striking of a nucleus with a high-velocity charged particle.
Transuranium Elements Elements immediately following Uranium on the periodic table, atomic numbers higher than or equal to 93.
Radiochemical Dating The process of determining the age of an object by measuring the amount of a certain radioisotope remaining in that object.
Half-Life The time required for one-half of a radioisotope's nuclei to decay into its products.
Mass Defect The difference in mass between a nucleus and its omponent nucleons.
Nuclear Fission The splitting of a nucleus into fragments.
Critical Mass The neutrons released in one fission cause other fissions to occur.
Breeder Reactor Reactors able to produce more fuel than they use.
Thermonuclear Reaction The high energy, acheived at high temperatures, required to overcome the electrostatic repulsion between nuclei.
Nuclear Fusion The combinin of atomic nuceli.
Ionizing Radiation Radiation energetic enough to ionize matter with which it collides.
Radiotracer A radioisotope that emits non-ionizing radiation and is used to to signal the presence of an element or specific substance.
Table N Provides decay modes and half-life values for a variety of naturally radioactice elements.
Created by: Silvs216



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