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Galvanic cells

Year 12

A piece of zinc is placed in Cu(NO3)2 solution. Write 2 half equations and a net equation. Zn(s)--->Zn2+(aq) + 2e- (oxidation) Cu2+(aq) +2e- ---> Cu(s) (reduction) (net equation) Cu2(aq)+ +Zn(s)---> Cu(s)+Zn2+(aq)
How do chemical reactions produce electricity, what does it have to be connected to? A galvanic cell, external circuit
In a galvanic cell, what is the purpose of a simple wire? Allows the flow of electrons and connect the electrodes to an external circuit.
What does the voltmetre measure? Potential difference between two half cells in volts.
What is the potential difference? The driving force of electrons.
Give a definition for a galvanic cell An external circuit that transfers chemica reactions into electrical energy by conversion.
Draw a diagram of a Zn half cell in NO3 and Cu half cell in NO3. na
Which electrode does oxidation occur? Anode
Which electrode does reduction occur? Cathode
What is an electrode? The are the conductors of a cell, often metal strips that get connected to an external ciruit.
What is an electrolyte A solution that conducts electricity
Define redox reaction and they are also known as______? Reactions that involve the transer of electrons and are both the processes of oxidation and reduction. Also known as displacement reactions.
What is the salt bridge saturated with? KNO3, Potassium Nitrate
What are factors that are considered when choosing the salt bridge's saturation solution? - Must be soluble - Must not react with any other ions in solution
The more active metal would most likely _____ other metals from a solution of its ions Displace
Oxidant The species that causes another specie to oxidise. The oxidant itself, reduces.
Is the oxidant the less active metal? Yes
Reductant The species that causes another specie to reduce. The reeductant itself, oxidises
Are reductants more active? Yes
Reductants are also known as: Reducing agents
What do oxidation states determine? Whether an oxidation or reduction has taken place within a reaction.
How are oxidation numbers assigned? Using roman numerals. They are simply the charges on the ion.
What is the oxidation number that elements have? 0
What of the oxidation no. of a neutral molecule 0
Cl2 oxidation number 0
H20 oxidation number 0
CO3^2- oxidation number -2
Oxidation states: how do you know when oxidation has occured within the chem equation? the oxidation state increases
Oxidation states: how do you know when reduction has occured within the chem equation? the oxidation state decreases
Account for one observation when a zn half cell is connected to a cu half cell and explain why this occurs the salt solution of cu will fade into a paler blue because the cu electrode reduces due to zn being the reductant. When it reduces, the cu2+ ions are being removed from the solution and the cu2+ ions are what causes the strong blue colour.
Account for another observation when a zn half cell is connected to a cu half cell red brown deposit forms on the cu electrode as the cu ions in solution are being displaced as it reduces and transforms into cu metalic
Which way does the anions move in a galvanic cell? from the cathode to the anode
Which way do the cations move in a galvanic cell? from the anode to the cathode
Created by: sallyzhu