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Chemistry 11


Atom Smallest particle of an element. Made up of protons, neutrons, and electrons.
Atomic Radius The distance between the centre of the nucleus of an atom and the outermost electrons.
Covalent Bonding Chemical bond resulting from the SHARING of electrons between bonding atoms.
Electrical Conductivity The amount of electrical current that can pass through a material.
Electron A NEGATIVELY charged particle within an atom; floats around the nucleus.
Electronegativity Indicates how strongly an atom of that element attracts electrons in a chemical bond
Electron Dot Diagram Lewis Structures (dots) that gives an easier way to emphasize an atoms valence electrons (outermost shell)
Excited State Energy level that attains an electron; absorbs additional energy and jumps from its current shell to one level higher.
Family Columns of the Periodic Table (up-down)
Ground State Electrons in the first shell; closest to the nucleus. Lowest energy level of an atom.
Group Also known as a family.. Columns
Ionic Bonding Chemical bond resulting from the TRANSFER of electrons from one bonding atom to another.
Ionization Energy The energy required to remove the most loosely held electron from an atom. Increases Left to right, decreases top to bottom.
Isoelectronic Means "equal Electric" elements or ions that have the same number of electrons. (They're equal)
Isotope An atom that has the same number of protons but a different amount of neutrons. (all different versions of the same element)
Lewis Structure A structual formula that uses dots to indicate bonds
Metal Element that typically has a high melting point (found on left side of periodic table)
Metalloid Elements whose properties are intermediate between metals and non metals
Non-Metal Element that has a low melting point and tends to GAIN electrons in a chemical reaction. (Found on the right side of the periodic table)
Non Polar Description of a bond that has a even distribution of charge due to an equal sharing of bonding electrons.
Octet Rule Rule that states that atoms tend to gain, loose or share electrons so that each atom has a full outer most shell which is typically 8 electrons.
Polar Covalent Bonding A bond between two NON METALS with different electronegativities. The higher the difference the more polar the bond is.
Polarity Two opposing tendencies: (One negative, one positive)
Resonance Structure Cannot be fully demonstrated by just one Lewis Structure.
Valence Electrons The last shell in an atom which contains electrons.
Dipoles Molecule in which the centres of positive and negative charge are not the same.
Wavelength Distance between two successive similar points on a wave.
Frequency Is the number of waves that pass a certain point in a given amount of time.
AMU Atomic Mass Unit - A weighted average
Alpha Particles ....
Cations A positive ion.
Anions A negative ion.
Intramolecular forces Covalent bonds, metallic bonds, ionic bonds.
Intermolecular forces hydrogen bonds, van der Walls forces
Van der Waal forces Is the sum of the attractive or repulsive forces between molecules.
Created by: IvyHanson