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Chemistry EC

Chemisrty the science that deals with the materials of the universe and the changes that these materials undergo.
Scientific Method systematic process for studying nature that involves observations, hypotheses, and experiments
Measurments a quantitative observation
Natural Law statement that summarizes generally observed behavior
Matter the "stuff" of which the universe is compoosed
Atom fundamental unit of which elements are made
Compounds substances made by bonding atoms together in specific ways
Molecule a collection of atoms bonded together that behave as a unit
Elements substances containing only one type of atom
Solid substance with fixed shape and volume
Liquid substance with definite volume that takes the shape of its container
Gas substance with no definite shape or volume
Physical Property characteristic of a substance that can change without the substance's becoming different substance
Chemical Property characteristics that describes the ability of a substance to change to a different substance
Physical Change change that does not affect the composition of a substance
Chemical Change change in which a substance becomes a different substance
Mixture a substance with variable compositions
Alloy a mixture of elements that has metallic properties
Pure Substance either a pure element or a compound
Homogeneous Mixture a mixture that is the same throughout
Solution a homogeneous mixture
Heterogeneous Mixture a mixture containing regions with differing properties
Distillation a separation process that depends on the different boiling points of the subatance
Filtration separation of a solid from a liquid by using filter paper
Element Sybmols code for a chemical element
Law of Constant Composition a given compound always contains elements in exactly the same proportion by mass
Chemical Formula a set of chemical symbols showing the elements present in a compound and their relative proportions, and in some cases the structure of the compound
Electron a negatively charges subatomic particle
Nuclear atom a modern concept of the atom as having a dense center of positive charge surrounded by moving electrons
Nucleus the relatively small, dense center of positive charge in an atom
Protron a positively charged subatomic particle located in the atomic nucleus
Neutron a subatomic particle with no charge located in the atomic nucleus
Isotopes atoms with the same number of protons but different numbers of neutrons
Atomic Number the number of protons in the nucleus of a given atom
Mass Number the total number of protons and neutrons in the nucleus of a given atom
Periodic Table a table of the chemical elements arranged in order of atomic number, usually in rows, so that elements with similar atomic structure appear in vertical columns.
Groups a vertical column of elements on the periodic table
Diatomic Molecule a molecule composed of two atoms
Ion an atom or group of atoms that has a positive or negative charge
Cation a positively charged ion
Anion a negatively charges ion
Ionic Compound a compound that results when a metal reacts with a nonmetal to form cations and anions
Binary Ionic Compound a two- element compound consisting of a cation and an anion
Polyatomic Ions an ion consisting of two or more atoms bound together
Oxyanion a polyatomic ion containing at least one oxygen atom and one or more atoms of at least one other element
Acid a substance that produces hydrogen ions in solutions
Unit the part of the measurement telling us the scale being used
Volume the amount of three- dimensional space occupied by a substance
Mass the quantity of matter in an object
Significant Figures the certain digits and the first uncertain digit of a measurment
Conversion Factor a ratio used to convert from one unit to another
Dimensional Analysis the process of using conversion factors to change from one unit to another
Density the mass of a substance per a given volume of that substance
Specific Gravily the ratio of the density of given liquid to the density of water at 4 degrees Celsius
Atomic Mass Unit (AMU) a small unit of mass equal to 1.66 X 10-24 grams
Average Atomic Mass the weighed average of the masses of all the isotopes of an element
Mole the number equal to the number of carbon atoms in exactly 12 grams of pure 12C: Avogadro's number.
Molar Mass the mass in grams of 1 mole of the substance
Mass Percent Percent= Part/Whole X 100%
Empirical Formula the formula of a compound expressing the smallest whole- number ratio of atoms in the compound
Molecular Formula the actual formula of a compound giving the types of atoms and the numbers of each type of atom
Chemical Reaction one or more substances are changed into one or more new substances by reorganization of component atoms
Chemical Equation a representation of a chemical reaction using the formulas of the starting substances that react and the new substances that are formed
Reactant the starting substance of a chemical reaction, shown to the left of the reaction arrow
Product the new substance formed by the chemical reactions, shown on the right of the reaction arrow
Coefficient the number written in front of the chemical formulas in balanced chemical reactions
Precipitation the formation of a solid in a chemical reaction
Precipitate the solid that forms in a precipitation reaction
Precipitation Reaction a reaction in which a solid forms and seperates from the solution
Strong Electrolyte a substance that dissolves in water by dissociating completely into ions
Soluble Solid a solid that readily dissolves in water
Insoluble Solid a solid that dissolves to such a small degree that it is not detectable to the naked eye
Strong Acid an acid that completely dissociates to produce H+ ions in solution
Strong Base a base that completely dissociates tp produce OH- ions in solution
Salt an ionic compound
Oxidation- Reduction Reaction a chemical reaction involving the transfer of electrons
Combustion Reaction a chemical reaction involving oxygen as one of the reactants that produces enough heat so that a flame results
Synthesis Reaction a chemical reaction in which a compound is formed from simpler materials
Decomposition a chemical reaction in which a compound is broken down into simpler compounds, or to the component elemenets
Molecular Equation a chemical equation showing the complete forms of all reactants and products
Complete Ionic Equation a chemical equation for the reaction in solution representing all strong electrolytes as ions
Spectator Ion an ion present in solution that does not participate in a reaction
Net Ionic Equation a chemical equation for the reaction in solution showing only those components that are directly involved in the reaction
Created by: makstac