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Electricity

and the National Grid

QuestionAnswer
what is the National Grid? is the network of pylons and cables that cover Britain, getting electricity to homes everywhere. it takes electrical energy from power stations to where its needed in homes and industry
how do you transmit the huge amount of power needed? you need either a high voltage or a high current
what is the problem with a high current? you lose loads of energy through heat cables. its much cheaper to boost the voltage up really high (400 000 v)and keep the the current very low
how do you get the voltage to 400 000 v? it requires transformers and big pylons with huge insulators
what do the transformers do? they have to step the voltage up (step up)at one end for efficient transmission and then bring it back down to safe levels at the other end (step-down)
how is the voltage increased? using a step up transformer
how is the voltage reduced? using a step down transformer
what are the advantages of overhead cables? - lower setup costs - easy to access - easy to setup - minimal disturbance to land
what are the disadvantage of overhead cables? - lots of maintenance needed - ugly - affected by the weather - less reliable
what are the advantages of underground cables? - minimal maintenance - hidden - not affected by weather - more reliable
what are the disadvantages of underground cables? - higher set up cost - hard to access - hard to set up - lots of disturbance to land
what is the National Grid? is the network of pylons and cables that cover Britain, getting electricity to homes everywhere. it takes electrical energy from power stations to where its needed in homes and industry
how do you transmit the huge amount of power needed? you need either a high voltage or a high current
what is the problem with a high current? you lose loads of energy through heat cables. its much cheaper to boost the voltage up really high (400 000 v)and keep the the current very low
how do you get the voltage to 400 000 v? it requires transformers and big pylons with huge insulators
what do the transformers do? they have to step the voltage up (step up)at one end for efficient transmission and then bring it back down to safe levels at the other end (step-down)
how is the voltage increased? using a step up transformer
how is the voltage reduced? using a step down transformer
what are the advantages of overhead cables? - lower setup costs - easy to access - easy to setup - minimal disturbance to land
what are the disadvantage of overhead cables? - lots of maintenance needed - ugly - affected by the weather - less reliable
what are the advantages of underground cables? - minimal maintenance - hidden - not affected by weather - more reliable
what are the disadvantages of underground cables? - higher set up cost - hard to access - hard to set up - lots of disturbance to land
Created by: rv1