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Chemistry 1

Law of definite proportions compounds are made of the same elements in the same proportions regardless of size or source of sample
Law of conservation of mass mass cannot be created or destroyed Cathode ray tube.)
Nucleus Dense, central portion of the atom. Holds all the positive charge. Nearly all the mass, but little volume. (Gold foil experiment)
Proton a subatomic particle with a positive charge; found in the nucleus of an atom. The number of protons in the nucleus is the atomic #, which determines the identity of an element
Neutron a subatomic particle that has no charge and is found in the nucleus. (James Chadwick)
Atomic number the number of protons in the nucleus of an atom. (never changes for that element) Must be whole numbers. Tells how many electrons are present.
Mass Number the total number of protons and neutrons of the nucleus of an atom.
Isotope an atom that has the same number of protons as other atoms of the same element but has a different name and a different number of neutrons.
Orbital regions around a nucleus that correspond to specific energy levels; electrons are likely to be found here
Electromagnetic Spectrum all of the frequencies or wavelengths of electromagnetic radiation
Ground State normal energy level for electrons.
Excited State more energy than normal.
Quantum Number a number that specifies the properties of electrons
Pauli Exclusion Principle The principle that states that 2 particles of a certain class cannot be in the exact same energy state.
Electron Configuration the arrangement of electrons in an atom
Aufbau Principle Electrons fill orbitals that have the lowest energy first.
Hund’s Rule Fill each orbital of an energy level with one electron before putting a second electron in the orbital
Atomic mass mass of atoms is measured in atomic mass units. (amu) Atomic mass on periodic table is the average of all the isotopes.
Mole (mol) the SI unit for measuring the amount of a substance whose # of particles is the same as the # of atoms. In a 12-g sample of carbon -12
Molar mass (g/mol) the mass in grams of 1 mol of a substance
Avogadro’s Number 1 mol= 6.02*10^23 atoms
Electron A subatomic particle that has a negative electric charge. (J.J. Thomson’s Cathode ray tube.)
Created by: crae10