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Chapter 3

The Chemical Building Blocks of Life

The sugar of these molecules is ribose. ribonucleic acid
The most abundant protein in vertebrates. collagen
Protein that acts as a catalyst. enzyme
Special proteins that help other proteins fold correctly. chaperone
A chain of 5 carbon sugars linked together by phosphodiester bonds with an organic base protruding from each sugar. nucleic
Molecules that contain carbon, hydrogen, and oxygen in a 1:2:1 ratio. carbohydrates
Macromolecules that have seven "jobs" within the cell. proteins
Process in which a protein changes shape or unfolds. denaturation
Synthesis reaction that forms polymers by removing water. dehydration
Pairs with Thymine when found in DNA. adenine
Pairs with Cytosine when found in DNA. guanine
Chemical reaction that breaks up polymers by adding water molecules. hydrolysis
One kind of lipid with three fatty acids attached. fat
Fatty acid having more than one double bond. polyunsaturated
The shape of DNA. double helix
Number of different amino acids that forms proteins in all living things. twenty
Covalent bond linking two amino acids. peptide
Complex lipid used in biological membrane. phospholipids
C6H12O6 is most commonly found in this form. glucose
A nitrogen base belonging to RNA only. uracil
Group of biomolecules that is insoluble in water. lipid
A small chemical subunit, such as a nucleotide or amino acid. monomer
A polymer of amino acids. protein
Alternative forms of molecules with the same empirical formula. isomers
Nucleic acids are polymers of this repeating subunit. nucleotide
The sugars found in nucleic acids can be described in this way since they have five carbon atoms. pentose
Proteins like hemoglobin are used for this. transport
A molecule on which an enzyme acts. substrate
Number of levels in protein structure. four
Material that forms the exoskeleton of insect and crustaceans. chitin
Structural polysaccharide found in plant cell walls. cellulose
Cytosine, thymine, and uracil are all these small, singe-ring molecules. pyrimidine
RNA has this many strands. one
Many amino acids linked by peptide bonds. polypeptide
Plant fats are usually produced in this form. unsaturated
Biological molecules that is large and complex. macromolecules
Long chains of hydrocarbons attached to a glycerol molecule. fatty acids
This is made of many monosaccharides. polysaccharide
A molecule composed of many similar or identical molecular subunits. polymer
The nonpolar tails or phospholipids are said to be this. hydropholic
Animal fats are usually produced in this form. saturated
Plant polysaccharide formed from glucose. starch
The animal version of starch. glycogen
This is added to convert oil into a solid fat. hydrogen
The nitrogen bases in DNA that pair with each other are said to be this. complementary
A simple sugar. monosaccharide
Biological molecules containing only carbon and hydrogen. hydrocarbons
The third level of protein structure. tertiary
Molecule containing an amino group, a carboxyl group and a hydrogen atom. amino acid
The difference between ribose and deoxyribose is one molecule of this. oxygen
Biological molecules are said to be this, since they are found in organisms. orgainic
Adenine and guanine are in this category because they both have a double-ring structure. purine
Created by: stlouiscards8