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Chemistry Vocab 2

Vocab for the Periodic Table and Elements

malleable able to be flattened (gold (Au) is the most)
ionization energy the amount of energy needed to remove an electron
cation an ion with a positive charge
anion an ion with a negative charge
ion a charged particle
alkaline/alkali metal a highly reactive metal; is never found naturally in its elemental state; its reactivity increases with the number of protons; has low electronegativity; is found in group 1 of the Periodic Table; has one valence electron; has lowest ionization energy
alkaline/alkali earth metal has less extreme properties than in group 1; is found in group 2 of the Periodic Table; has two valence electrons
family/group each vertical column of the Periodic Table
Coulomb's law states that opposite charges attract and like charges repel; force depends on number of charge and distance in charges
periodic law states that chemical and physical properties of elements follow a repeated pattern
diatomic element an element that appears naturally as two atoms joined; is too unstable to remain single (hydrogen, oxygen, fluorine, bromine, iodine, nitrogen, chlorine; remember scientist "Dr. HOFBrINCl")
halogen a highly reactive nonmetal; is found in group 17 of the Periodic Table; has seven valence electrons; is toxic; forms salt when combined with group 1; is also diatomic; has very high electronegativity and ionization energy
period each horizontal row of the Periodic Table
ductile able to form wire
electronegativity tendency of an atom to take another atom's electrons
metalloid/semimetal an element whose properties are intermediate between those of metals and solid nonmetals; is an electrical semiconductor; may be a nonmetal that can combine with a metal to form an alloy (boron, silicon, germanium, arsenic, antimony, tellurium)
metal has a low ionization energy; is ductile; is malleable; tends to have electrical and thermal conductivity; has luster; tends to form cations
nonmetal tends to be a gas, liquid, or network solid (forms repeating patterns of atoms); tends to gain electrons and form anions; if solid, tends to be brittle; is a poor conductor; lacks luster
transition metal/transition element can be found in groups 3 to 12 in the Periodic Table; can form more than one type of cation; forms a colored solution (copper, cobalt, niobium, manganese, iron, nickel)
noble/inert/monatomic gas an element occurring as a single atom; is completely nonreactive; its density increases with period on the Periodic Table
ionic radius the radius of an atom's ion
atomic radius a measure of the size of a chemical element's atoms, usually the mean or typical distance from the center of the nucleus to the boundary of the surrounding cloud of electrons
Created by: KKelley



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