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DOEMath gr6-8

VA DOE Math Vocabulary grades 6-8

altitude the distance from one side of a polygon to the vertex farthest from that side of the polygonthe shortest distance between the base of a geometric figure and the “top” of the figure; the “top” may be an apex, vertex, or another base
area the measure of the interior region of a two-dimensional figure The area of a polygon in the coordinate plane is a positive number such that: The area of the unit square is one;•Congruent polygons have equal areas;•If a polygon is a union of two or mo
term parts of an expression separated by + or - signs
transformations operations that alter the location or form of a figure
translation a transformation in which a geometric figure is moved to another location without changing its size (isometry) or orientation
theoretical probability the ratio of the number of exppected outcomes if the experiment is repeated over and over; P (E);
trapezoid a quadrilateral with exactly one pair of parallel sides
variable a symbolic representation used to denote a quanitity or expression
vertical angles angles formed by intersecting line. vertical angles have a common vertex and are congruent
volume the total amount of space inside a three-dimensional object. Volume is measured in cubic units.
whole numbers non-negative integers
polygon a simple, closed, plane figure with three or more sides that are line segments
polyhedron s three-dimensional geometric figure with polygonal faces
prime number a natural number with exactly two factors (itself and one)
prism a polyhedron with two, parallel, polygonal bases
proportion a statement of equality between ratios
pyramid a polyhedron with a polygonal base, triangular faces and a vertex
Pythagorean Theorem a theorem defining the relationship between the lengths of the three sides of a right trainalge
quadrilateral a polygon with four sides
ratio a comparison of any two quantities; may be expressed as a:b or a to b or a/b
quartile any of the three values which divide the sorted data set into four equal parts so that each part represents 1/4 of the sampled population.
rational numbers the set of numbers that can be expressed as a ratio of two integers
rectangle a parallelogram with one right angle; a square is a special case of a rectangle with four congruent sides
reflection a transformationin which all points
relation a rule that pairs each element in one set(the domain) with one or more elements in another set (the range)
rhomus a parallelogram with four congruent sides
rotation a transformation in which all points under the transformation are turned through an angle of rotation about a center of rotation
sample space the set of all possible outcomes of an experiment
scatter plot a graph of paired data in which the data values are plotted as points in (x,y) format
scientific notation a standardized way of writing real numbers
similar having the same shape but not necessarily the same size
simple interest a method of computing interest
square root a nonnegative nubmer that must be multiplied by itself to equal a given number
square a parallelogram with one right angle and four congruent sides
stem-and-leaf plot a simple way to display the distribution of data
supplementary angles two angles with measures adding to 180 degrees
surface area the total area of the exterior of a three-dimensional geometric figure;
set a group of numbers, variables, geometric figures or anything else
divisible capable of being divided by a number (a factor) so that there is a remainder of zero
dimensions (of a matrix) number of rows and the number of columns of a matrix, written r x c
domain in a function f(x), the possible values for x: the set of values for the independent variable for which a function or relation is define
edge a line segment formed by the intersection of two faces (planes) that comprise part of a polyhedron
arithmetic sequence a set of numbers arranged so that the difference between any two consectutive numbers is the same
box-and-whisker plot a visual dispaly of the five number summary (Q1,Q2,Q3, minimum, maximum) of a set of data
center of rotation the fixed point around which a geometric figure is rotated or turned
circle graph a graph that shows a circle divided into sectors in order to compare different parts of a data set to each other or to the entire set
coefficient a numberical factor in a term containing variables
circumference the distance around a circle
common factor an integer that is a factor of two or more numbers
complementary angles any two angles such that the sum of their measures is 90 degress
comoposite number any whole number with more than two factors
cone a three-dimensional figure that consists of a circular face (the base), a point not in the plane of the base (the vertix), and a lateral surface that connects the vertex to each point on the boundary of the base
congruent figures two or more geometric figures tht have the same size and shape
coordinate plane a two-dimensional system in which a location is described by its distances from two perpendicular reference lines (axes) The horizontal axis is the x-axis and the vertical axis is the y-axis.
cylinder a three-dimensional figure that consists of two paralletl, congruent, circular regions (bases) and a lateral surface that connects the boundaries of the bases
decagon a polygon with ten (10) sides
dependent variable the values that change in relationship to each other.
diagonal a line segment between non-consecutive vertices in a polygon
diameter a chord that contains the center of a circle
dilation a transformation in which a figure grows larger. dilations may be with respect to a point or an axis related to the graph of a geometric figure
isosceles triangle a triangle with at least two congruent sides
linear equation an equation of degree 1; graph is aline; shows a relationship between two variables; an equation of the form y = mx + b where a and b are real numbers
matrix a set of numbers in a rectuangluar dispaly with rows and columns
mean a measure of central tendency which is affect4ed by all data points; calculated by finding the sum of the data values and dividing by the number of data points
mode a measure of central tendency that is the most frequently occurring value
measures of central tendency descriptive statistics that describe the center of the data set; mean, mediam, mode
nonagon a polygon with nine sides
natural numbers the coutning numbers, the positive whole numbers; a positive integer
octagon a polygon with eight sides
odd integer any integer that, when divided by 2, does not have an integer as the quotient
ordered pair a pair of number used to locate a point in a coordiante plane
origin in a coordinate plane, the point at the intersection of the x and y axes
outlier any value in a set of data that is notabley farther from the mean than the other data
outcome in a probability experiment, the result of an event
pentagon a polygon with five sides
perfect square any natural nubmer that can be expressed as a natural number multiplied by itself
percent per cent means per one hundred; a special ratio in which the denominator is always 100
parallelogram any quadrilateral with both pairs of opposite sides parallel
perimeter the distance around a geometric figure
pi the ratio of the circumference of a circle to its diameter; approximatley 22/7 or diceimal approximation 3.14
perpendicular lines two lines that intersect to form right angles
plane figures geometric figures that exist in two dimensions (a plane)
geometric sequence a set of numbers arrnaged so that the ratio between any two consecutive sequence elements is constant
greatest common factor the greatest number that is a factor of two or more numbers
height the perpendicular distance between two geometric objects
heptagon a polygon with seven sides; also called a septagon
hexagon a polygon with six sides
histogram a graph with bars used to dispaly categorical data; the categories are consecutive, numerical and in equal intervals;
hypotenuse in any right triangle, the side opposite the right angle; the hypotenuse is always the longest side of the right triangle because it is opposite the angle of greatest measure (90 degrees)
independent variable refer to values that change in relationship to each other
integer the set of whole numbers and their opposites
inequality a mathematical sentence that compares two expressions that may or may not be equivalent
interquartile range the difference between the numeric values representing the 75th and 25th percentiles
irrational numbers a number that cannot be written as the ratio of two integers; when written as a decimal, the digits of an irrational number neither terminte nor repeat
equation a mathematical statement that two or more expressions are equivalent
equilateral triangle a trinalge with three congruent sides and three congruent angles; each angle measures 60 degrees
equivlent equal in value
even integer an integer that is a nultiple of 2
expression a combination of variables, numbers, and/or operations that represents a mathematical relationship but no statement of equality or inequality
exponent a number that indicates how many tiems the base is used as a factor
face a polygon that forms one of the flat surfaces of polyhedron
experimental probability a statement of probability based on the results of a series of actual trials
factor a number or expression that is mulitpled by one or more other numbers or expressions to yield a produce
frequency distribution a list of values a varialbe assumes in a sample;
formula an equation that shows the relationship between two or more quantities; often in the form of a mathematical rule
Fundamental Counting Principle if there are M ways to do one thing, and N ways to do another, then there are MxN wyas of doing both. The fundamental counting principle in the guiding rule for finding the number of ways to accomplish two tasks.
Created by: rdye