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Physics

TermDefinition
15% rule a 15% increase in kVp is the equivalent to doubling the mAs
Absorption those x-ray photons removed from the x-ray beam as a result of the uptake of their energy by body tissues
Actual focal spot area actually bombarded w/ filament electrons
Annihilation reaction The positron is an “unnatural particle” and, as such, travels until it strikes an electron. In this annihilation event, the positron & the electron it interacts w/ are destroyed & their energy is converted into 2 x-ray photons
Anode cooling chart used to determine the time it takes for the anode to cool based on the factors giving
Beam quality *The penetrating power of the x-ray beam. Measured by the half-value layer (HVL) *Is affected by kVp & filtration & controlled mainly by adjusting kVP
Beam quantity *The total # of x-ray photons in the beam *Is affected by mAs, kVp, & filtration *Is directly proportional to mAs
Bremsstrahlung interaction - an interaction in which a filament electron is attracted to the nucleus, causing it to slow down & change direction. The energy loss is emitted as a bremsstrahlung photon
Characteristic cascade the process of the outer-shell electron filling inner-shell vacancies, creating a cascading effect during a characteristic interaction
Characteristic interaction an interaction in which a filament electron removes an orbital electron from an atom; to regain stability, an outer-shell electron fills the vacancy, giving up its excess energy as a characteristic x-ray photon
Classical interaction An interaction that occurs w/ low-energy x-rays, typically below the diagnostic range. The incoming photon interacts w/ the atom, causing it to become excited. The x-ray does not lose energy, but changes direction
Compton electron the electron ejected from an atom during a Compton scattering event
Compton scattering an interaction in which an incident photon enters a tissue atom, interacts w/ an orbital electron, & removes it from its shell. In doing so, the incident photon loses up to one-third of its energy & is usually deflected in a new direction
Continuous emission spectrum a graphic representation of bremsstrahlung x-ray production
Differential absorption the difference between the x-ray photons that are absorbed photoelectrically versus those that penetrate the body
Discrete emission spectrum a graphic representation of characteristic x-ray production
Dual focus tube *2 small coils of thin tungsten wire *0.1-0.2 mm thick *1-2 mm wide *7-15 mm long *1%-2% thorium sometimes added. Thorium- radioactive metallic element
Effective focal spot the x-ray beam area as seen from the perspective of the patient
Extrafocal radiation is off-focus radiation
Half-value layer (HVL) *Measure the intensity of the beam w/a radiation detector, then placing the aluminum filters thickness between the tube & detector until the intensity reading is reduced 1/2 the original value *Normal HVL-3-5 mm AL
Housing cooling chart used to determine the time it takes for the tube housing to cool
incident electron the electrons from the thermionic cloud that arrive at the anode
Inverse square law states that the intensity of a beam is inversely proportional to the square of the distance. That is the intensity quadruples if the distance is reduced to one half of its original value
Negatron Negative electron
Off-focus radiation *X-ray photons not produced at the focal spot *high voltage electrons striking the focal spot produce scattered electrons/photons *Scattered electrons may have strike another part of the tube & create photons there *25-35% of primary beam
Pair production an interaction that occurs when the incident x-ray photon has enough energy to escape interaction w/ the orbital electrons & interact w/ the nucleus of the tissue atom, resulting in the creation of a positron & an electron
Penetration refers to those x-ray photons that are transmitted through the body & reach the IR
Photodisintergration an interaction in which extremely high-energy photons interact w/ the nucleus of an atom, making it unstable & to regain stability the nucleus ejects a nuclear particle
Focal spot an area on the anode or target that is struck by electrons
Photoelectric interaction an interaction in which the incident x-ray photon interacts w/ the inner-shell electron of a tissue atom & removes it from orbit. In the process, the incident x-ray photon expends all of its energy & is totally absorbed
Photoelectron the electron ejected from an atom during a photoelectric interaction
Positron positively charged electron
Primary beam refers to the x-ray beam as it is upon exiting the collimator & exposing the patient
Rayleigh interaction known as classical interactions
Recoil electron Compton electron or secondary electron
Remnant beam The x-ray beam that remains after interaction w/ the patient & is exiting the patient to expose the IR
Secondary photon characteristic photons produced in ionized tissue atoms as outer-shell electrons fill inner-shell vacancies
Space charge effect the self-limiting factor caused by the space charge reaching a size commensurate w/ the current used & making it difficult for additional electrons to be emitted
Therminoic emission the boiling off of electrons from a filament by a flow of electrical current
Thomson interaction AKA classical interactions
Transmission x-ray photons that pass through the body to expose the IR
Tube rating chart plots 3 technical factors: kVp mA, & exposure time
X-ray emission spectrum a graphic representation of the x-ray beam as a whole, combining the relevant parts of the discrete & continuous emission spectra
Secondary electron the ejected electron resulting from the Compton effect interaction; AKA Compton electron
Created by: hicksm0155