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Chem 05 Electrons

Terms associated with wave mechanics and electron arrangements in atoms.

TermDefinition
distance between consecutive wave crests wavelength
# of waves that pass a point per second frequency (f)
SI unit of frequency hertz (Hz)
the visible light spectrum from longest to shortest wavelength ROY G. BIV
visible wavelength range 400 - 700 nanometers
10^-9 meters nanometer (nm)
abbreviation for the speed of light (3.00x10^8 m/s) c
lambda (λ) variable/letter that stands for wavelength
light 'fingerprint' produced by a gaseous element when electrically stimulated emission (bright-line) spectrum
honorary name for the 4 visible lines in the emission spectrum of hydrogen Balmer series
the condition of an electron when at its lowest possible energy ground state
describes an electron at a higher than normal energy level excited state
a change of energy levels (up or down) of an electron transition
electrons have both wave and particle characteristics so they have a _?_ nature dual
a 90% probability region in which an electron is likely to be found orbital
spherical shaped probability region, one per energy level s orbital
dumbbell shaped probability region, three per energy level p orbital
cloverleaf shaped probability region, five per energy level d orbital
seven probability regions per energy level with complex shapes f orbital
set of 4 numbers/letters that describe the energy state of an electron in an atom quantum numbers
the quantum number that corresponds to the Bohr model energy levels principal quantum number
the quantum number that describes the shape of the probability cloud in which an electron is moving azimuthal (orbital) quantum number
the quantum number that indicates the orientation in space (ex: x, y, or z) of a probability region magnetic quantum number
the quantum number that describes some opposite behavior for electrons that can have only two possibilities (ex: cw, ccw) spin quantum number
states that "electrons enter the lowest energy position/orbital first" aufbau principle
states that "each orbital in a sublevel must receive one electron before pairing occurs" Hunds rule
states that "no two electrons in an atom have the exact same set of quantum numbers (all electrons in an atom are unique)" Pauli exclusion principle
a diagram the indicates where principal energy level sublevels 'overlap' diagonal rule
the addition of electrons to a sublevel of a principal level below the outermost belated filling
groups 1-2; elements on the periodic table into which the last added electron enters an 's' orbital s block
groups 13-18; elements on the periodic table into which the last added electron enters an 'p' orbital p block
groups 3 - 12; elements on the periodic table into which the last added electron enters an 'd' orbital d block
bottom two rows on the periodic table; elements into which the last added electron enters an 'f' orbital f block
uses blanks and arrows to show the arrangement of electrons in an atom __ __ __ __ __, etc orbital notation
uses coefficients, letters, superscripts, and sometimes brackets/symbols to show the arrangement of electrons in an atom (1s^2 2s^2...) electron configuration notation
ejection of electrons by some metals when light of sufficient energy strikes the surface photoelectric effect
a packet or bundle (or quantum) of light energy photon
a packet or bundle ('particle') of any energy form quantum
SI unit of energy joule
energy level an excited electron must fall to to emit/release a photon of visible light 2nd
energy level an excited electron must fall to to emit/release a photon of ultraviolet light 1st
energy level an excited electron must fall to to emit/release a photon of infrared light 3rd
consists of all electron orbitals of equivalent energy (ex: the three p orbitals together form a p _?_) sublevel
color of light possessing photons of highest frequency and energy violet
color of light possessing photons of lowest frequency and energy red
minimal frequency of light necessary for the photoelectric effect to occur threshold frequency
symbol of first element to undergo belated filling Sc
symbol of element that has an irregular filling pattern due to 'borrowing' an electron to form a 1/2-filled d sublevel Cr
symbol of element that has an irregular filling pattern due to 'borrowing' an electron to form a FILLED d sublevel Cu
symbol of only element on the periodic table that is not located in the same area as the rest of the elements in its "block" He
periodic table "block" consisting of groups 1 & 2, plus He s block
periodic table "block" consisting of groups 13 - 18, except He p block
periodic table "block" consisting of groups 3 - 12 d block
periodic table "block" consisting of the 2 rows at the bottom of the table f block
all members of this periodic table group are very chemically stable because they have filled energy sublevels noble gases
according to Hunds rule, if 3 electrons enter a p sublevel, they will be arranged in this pattern single-single-single
alloys of these 3 elements with multiple unpaired d sublevel electrons let them form strong permanent (ALNICO) magnets iron, cobalt, nickel
this occurs when 2 wave crests meet and build up constructive interference
this occurs when a wave crest and trough meet and cancel destructive interference
Thomas Young's experiment that proved light is made of waves double slit
bending of waves around an obstacle or through an opening diffraction
arrangement of electrons possessed by all members of group 18 noble gas configuration (NGC)
only electrons represented in the NGC (i.e. 'short') electron configuration (ex - Mg:[Ne]3s^2 <-- just these two!) valence electrons
maximum # of electrons ever found in the outer level of an atom 8
model of the atom developed by Schrodinger and others that accounts for the wave nature of electrons electron cloud OR wave mechanics model
when electrons absorb or release energy, they don't actually 'jump' from one level to another, they change form from one _?_ to another standing wave
Created by: goakley