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Chapter 4

Chemical Quantities and Aqueous Reactions

Stochiometry The numerical relationship between chemical amounts in a balanced chemical equation
Relationship between Molecules to the amounts in Moles The coefficients in a chemical equation specify the relative amounts in moles of each of the substances involved in the reaction
Limiting Reactant(Limiting Reagent) The reactant that limits the amount of product in a chemical reaction. Is completely consumed. Makes the least amount of product. Determines theoretical yield.
Excess Reactants The reactants that do not limit the amount of product. Any reactant that occurs in a quantity greater than is required to completely react with the limiting reactant
Theoretical Yield The maximum amount of product that can be made in a chemical reaction based on the amount of limiting reactant.
Actual Yield The amount of product actually produced by a chemical reaction. Is always equal to or less than the theoretical yield
Percent Yield The percentage of the theoretical yield that was actually attained. Is calculated as the ratio of the actual yield to the theoretical yield
Percent Yield Formula %Yield = (actual yield/theoretical yield) * 100
Solution Homogenous mixture of two substances. Contain a solvent and solute with solvent in greater abundance
Solvent The majority component of a mixture
Solute The minority component of a mixture
Aqueous Solution A solution in which water acts as the solvent
Dilute Solution A solution that contains a small amount of solute relative to the solvent
Concentrated Solution A solution that contains a large amount of solute relative to the solvent
Molarity(M) The amount of solute(in moles) divided by the volume of solution(in liters)
Molarity Formula Molarity(M) = (amount of solute(mol)/volume of solution(L))
Stock Solutions Solutions in concentrated forms
Electrolytes Substances that dissolve in water to form solutions that conduct electricity. Dissolves in water and conducts electricity
Strong Electrolytes Substances such as sodium chloride that completely dissociate into ions when they dissolve in water
Nonelectrolytes Compounds such as sugar that do not dissociate into ions when dissolved in water, and the resulting solutions - called nonelectrolyte solutions - do not conduct electricity
Strong Acid An acid that completely ionizes in a solution
Weak Acids Acids that do not completely ionize in water. Are classified as weak electrolytes, and the resulting solutions - are weak electrolyte solutions - weakly conduct electricity
Weak Electrolytes Partial dissociation into ions
Soluble Dissolves in water
Insoluble Does not dissolve in water
The Following are Strong Acids to Memorize
Hydrochloric Acid HCl
Sulfuric Acid H2SO4
Nitric Acid HNO3
Hydrobromic Acid HBr
Hydroiodic Acid HI
Perchloric Acid HClO4
Li^+ Soluble (NO EXCEPTIONS)
Na^+ Soluble (NO EXCEPTIONS)
C2H3O2^- Soluble (NO EXCEPTIONS)
SO4^-2 Soluble (EXCEPTION WHEN Sr(SO4), Ba(SO4), Pb(SO4), Ag2(SO4), or Ca(SO4), BECOMES INSOLUBLE)
OH^- Insoluble (EXCEPTIONS WHEN Li(OH), Na(OH), K(OH), NH4(OH), Ca(OH)2, Sr(OH)2, Ba(OH)2 BECOMES SOLUBLE)
S^-2 Insoluble (EXCEPTIONS WHEN Li2S, Na2S, K2S, (NH4)2S, CaS, SrS, or BaS, BECOMES SOLUBLE)
CO3^-2 Insoluble (EXCEPTIONS WHEN Li2(CO3), Na2(CO3), K2(CO3), (NH4)2(CO3), BECOMES SOLUBLE)
1st Solubility Rule Across All Rules Compounds Containing The SODIUM ION(Na) are SOLUBLE
2nd Solubility Rule Across All Rules Compounds Containing NO3^- ion are SOLUBLE
Precipitation Reaction Reactions in which a solid or precipitate forms when we mix two solution
Molecular Equation An equation showing the complete neutral formulas for every compound in the reaction as if they existed as molecules
Complete Ionic Equations Equations which list all of the ions present as either reactant or products in a chemical reaction. Include charges. Strong electrolytes are always represented as their componet ions in ionic equations - weak electrolytes are not
Spectator Ions Ions in an complete ionic equation that appear unchanged on both sides of the equation
Net Ionic Equation Equations that show only the species that actually change during the reaction
Acid-Base Reaction(Neutralization Reaction) A reaction in which an acid reacts with a base and the two neutralize each other, producing water(or in some cases a weak electrolyte). General form is acid + base -> water + salt
Gas-Evolution Reaction A reaction in which a gas forms, resulting in bubbling
Acid Substance that produces H^+ ions in aqueous solution
Base Substance that produces OH^- ions in aqueous solution
Hydronium Ion The ion formed from the association of a water molecule with an ion donated by an acid. H^+ and H3O^+
Polyprotic Acid An acid that contains more than one ionizable proton and releases them sequentially
Diprotic Acid An acid that contains two ionizable protons, such as H2SO4
Titration When a substance in a solution of known concentration is reacted with another substance in a solution of unknown concentration
Equivalency Point The point in the titration when the number of moles of OH^- added equals the number of moles of H^+ initially in solution-the titration is complete
Indicator A dye whose color depends on the acidity or basicity of the solution
Combination(Synthesis) Reaction Involve the joining of two reactant to produce a single product
Combination(Synthesis) Reaction General Form A + B -----> C
Decomposition Reaction Involve the breaking down of a single reactant into two or more products when heated
Decomposition Reaction General Form A -----> B + C + ......
Decomposition Rule #1 When heated, metal carbonates decompose to give metal oxides and carbon dioxide... (sodium carbonate ---/_\---> sodium oxide + carbon dioxide) (Na2CO3 ---/_\---> Na2O + CO2)
Decomposition Rule #2 When heated, metal bicarbonates decompose to give metal oxides, carbon dioxide and water... (calcium bicarbonate ---/_\---> calcium oxide + carbon dioxide + water) (Ca(HCO3)2 ---/_\---> CaO + 2CO2 + H2O
Single Replacement Reaction Single replacement reactions involve reaction of a solvated ionic compound with an element to produce a new ionic compound and a new element. In reaction the like element will switch places. Metals only replace metals and nonmetals only replace nonmetals.
Single Replacement Reaction General Form AB + C ----> CB + A (C and A are metals) DE + F ----> DF + E (E and F are nonemtals)
Double Replacement Reaction Involve the reaction of two ionic compounds in solution to produce two new ionic compounds. One possible product must be either insoluble in water or a covalent compounds. The products result from cation's switching places. Charges of cations don't change
Double Replacement Reaction General Formula AB + CD ----> CB + AD
Hydrocarbon Combustion Reaction CxHy + O2 ----> CO2 + H2O CxHyOz + O2 ----> CO2 + H2O
PO4^-3 Insoluble (EXCEPTIONS when, Li3(PO4), K3(PO4), Na3(PO4), NH4(PO4), Becomes Soluble)
Hydrochloric Acid(Strong) HCl(Strong)
Hydrobromic Acid(Strong) HBr(Strong)
Hydroiodic Acid(Strong) HI(Strong)
Nitric Acid(Strong) HNO3(Strong)
Sulfuric Acid(Strong) H2SO4(Strong)
Perchloric Acid(Strong) HClO4(Strong)
Acetic Acid(Weak) C2H4O2(Weak)
Hydrofluoric Acid(Weak) HF(Weak)
Sodium Hydroxide(Strong Base) NaOH(Strong Base)
Lithium Hydroxide(Strong Base) LiOH(Strong Base)
Potassium Hydroxide(Strong Base) KOH(Strong Base)
Calcium Hydroxide(Strong Base) Ca(OH)2(Strong Base)
Barium Hydroxide(Strong Base) Ba(OH)2(Strong Base)
Ammonia(Weak Base) NH3(Weak Base)
Gas-Evolution Reaction When 2 (aq)solutions mix to form (g)product that bubble out of solution. Some gas-evo Rxns form a (g)product directly when cation of one reactant combines with anion of the other. Other gas-evo Rxns form intermediate product that decomposes to form gas.
Gas-Evolution Example HCL(aq) + NaHCO3(aq) ---> (intermediate product)H2Co3(aq) + NaCl(aq) ---> H2O(l) + CO2(g) + NaCl(aq)
The Following are Compounds That Undergo Gas-Evolution Reactions
Sulfides(S^-2) Intermediate Product(None)... Gas Evolved(H2S)... Example(2HCl(aq) + K2S(aq) ---> H2S(g) + 2KCl(aq))
Carbonates and Bicarbonates (CO3^-2/HCO3^-1) Intermediate Product(H2CO3)... Gas Evolved(CO2)... Example(2HCl(aq) + K2CO3(aq) ---> H2O(l)+ CO2(g) + 2KCl(aq))
Sulfites and Bisulfites(SO3^-2/HSO3^-1) Intermediate Product(H2SO3)... Gas Evolved(SO2).. Example(2HCl(aq) + K2SO3(aq) ---> H2O(l) + SO2(g) + 2KCl(aq))
Ammonium(NH4^+1) Intermediate Product(NH4OH)... Gas Evolved(NH3)... Example(NH4Cl(aq) + KOH(aq) ---> H2O(l) + NH3(g) + KCl(aq))
Oxidation-Reduction Reactions(Redox Reactions) Reactions in which electrons transfer from one reactant to the other. Any reaction in which there is a change in the oxidation states of atoms in going from reactants to products
Oxidation Loss of electrons or increase on Ox. state
Reduction Gain of electrons or decrease in Ox. state
Oxidation State(Oxidation Number) Is given to each atom based on the electron assignments. The "charge" an atom in a compound would have if all shared electrons were assigned to the atom with the greatest attraction for those electrons.
The following are Rules for Assigning Oxidation States These rules are hierarchical. If any two rules conflict, follow the rule that is higher on the list
1. The oxidation state of an atom in a free element is 0. Cu has 0 ox state... Cl2 has 0 ox state
2. The oxidation state of a monoatomic ion is equal to its charge. Ca^+2 has +2 ox state... Cl^-1 has -1 ox state
3. The sum of the oxidation states of all the atoms in:.. a. a neutral molecule of formula unit 0... b. An ion is equal to the charge of the ion H2O has ox state of (2(H ox state) + 1(O ox state) = 0)... NO3^-1 has ox state of (1(N ox state) + 3(O ox state) = -1)...
4. In their compounds, metals have positive oxidation states.. a. Group 1A metals always have an oxidation state of +1... b. Group 2A metals always have an oxidation state of +2 In NaCl, Na has +1 ox state... In CaF2, Ca has +2 ox state
5. In their compounds, nonmetals are assigned oxidation states according to the following table. Entries at the top of the table take precedence over entries at the bottom of the table. 1. Nonmetal(Fluorine(F))..Ox. State(-1)..Example(In MgF2, F has -1 ox state)... 2. Nonmetal(Hydrogen(H))..Ox State(+1)..Example(In H2O, H has +1 ox state)... 3. Nonmetal(Oxygen(O))..Ox State(-2)..Example(In CO2, O has -2 ox state)
Table Continuation 4. Nonmetal(Group 7A)..Ox State(-1)..Example(In CCl4, CL has -1 ox state)... 5. Nonmetal(Group 6A)..Ox State(-2)..Example(In H2S, S has -2 ox state)... 6. Nonmetal(Group 5A)..Ox State(-3)..Example(In NH3, N has -3 ox state)
When assigning oxidation states, keep these point in mind 1. The oxidation state of any given element general depends on what other elements are present in the compound. (The exceptions are the group 1A and 2A metals, which are always +1 and +2, respectively.)
(2)When assigning oxidation states, keep these point in mind 2. Rule 3 must always be followed. Therefore, when following the hierarchy shown in rule 5, give priority to the element(s) highest on the list and then assign the oxidation state of the element lowest on the list using rule 3.
(3)When assigning oxidation states, keep these point in mind 3. When assigning oxidation states to elements that are not covered by rules 4 and 5(such as carbon), use rule 3 to deduce their oxidation state once all other oxidation states have been assigned.
Oxidizing Agent A substance that causes the oxidation of another substance. Is always reduced
Reducing Agent A substance that causes the reduction of another substance. Is always oxidized
Chemical Reactions that ARE Redox Reactions 1. Combination.. 2. Decomposition.. 3. Single replacement.. 4. Combustion
Chemical Reactions that are NOT Redox Reactions 1. Double replacement... a. Precipitation.. b. Acid-Base(Neutralization)
Created by: TimChemistry1