Busy. Please wait.
or

show password
Forgot Password?

Don't have an account?  Sign up 
or

Username is available taken
show password

why


Make sure to remember your password. If you forget it there is no way for StudyStack to send you a reset link. You would need to create a new account.
We do not share your email address with others. It is only used to allow you to reset your password. For details read our Privacy Policy and Terms of Service.


Already a StudyStack user? Log In

Reset Password
Enter the associated with your account, and we'll email you a link to reset your password.

Remove ads
Don't know
Know
remaining cards
Save
0:01
To flip the current card, click it or press the Spacebar key.  To move the current card to one of the three colored boxes, click on the box.  You may also press the UP ARROW key to move the card to the "Know" box, the DOWN ARROW key to move the card to the "Don't know" box, or the RIGHT ARROW key to move the card to the Remaining box.  You may also click on the card displayed in any of the three boxes to bring that card back to the center.

Pass complete!

"Know" box contains:
Time elapsed:
Retries:
restart all cards




share
Embed Code - If you would like this activity on your web page, copy the script below and paste it into your web page.

  Normal Size     Small Size show me how

AP Chemistry

Hardest class just became a little easier!!!

QuestionAnswer
What does the Atomic Mass signify? protons + neutrons
The Atomic Number signifies what? The number of protons
Why does the Atomic Mass have decimals? The effect of isotopes causes a different number of neutrons.
Hydrogen with 1 neutron is called? Protium
Hydrogen with 2 neutrons is called? Deutrium
Hydrogen with 3 neutrons is called? Tritium
When using the Atomic Mass, what place is it rounded to? The whole number
Term: Quantum Mechanical Model Probability of where the electrons are located
What do the columns on the Periodic Table signify? The family
What do the rows on the Periodic Table signify? The energy level
Why are atoms spheres? They are in constant motion
Why are atoms in constant motion? The protons and neutrons repel each other
Term: Atomic Radius The distance between the nucleus and the valence electrons
How do you find the relative radius of an atom? First you shoot radiation at the atom and measure the distance between the atom, then divide by two to get the radius
How does the Atomic Radius change from left to right on the Periodic Table? Why? It decreases because the effective nuclear charge creates a stronger pull because the greater amount of protons make the positive charge bigger
How does the Atomic Radius change from top to bottom on the Periodic Table? Why? It increases because the more core electrons creates a larger shielding effect, mean
Term: Ionization Energy The amount of energy it takes to knock off valence electrons
What type of ion loses an electron? What charge does it have? What type of element usually becomes this type of ion? Metals usually become cations with a positive charge
How does the Ionization Energy change from left to right on the Periodic Table? Why? It increases because it needs more energy to knock off an electron because the effective nuclear charge is stronger
How does the Ionization Energy change from top to bottom on the Periodic Table? Why? It decreases because in needs less energy to knock off an electron because the shielding effect causes a lower effective nuclear charge
What type of ion gains an electron? What charge does it have? What type of element usually becomes this type of ion? Non-metals usually become anions with a negative charge
Term: Electro-negativity the attraction to gain an electron
How are ionization energy and electro-negativity related They are directly related because the more attraction it has to gain an electron, means it will take more energy to knock an electron off
How does the Electro-negativity change from left to right on the Periodic Table? Why? It increases because the atomic radius smaller due to effective nuclear charge, making the attraction bigger because the nucleus is closer to the electrons
How does the Electro-negativity change from top to bottom on the Periodic Table? Why? It decreases because the extra core electrons, that cause the shielding effect, make the nucleus farther away from the nucleus causing less attraction
Term: Electron Affinity the change in energy (in kJ/mole) of a neutral atom (in the gaseous phase) when an electron is added to the atom to form a negative ion
Does increasing force to knock off an electron cause an increase or decrease in the heat given off? It creates more heat
What type of reaction loses or releases more heat? Exothermic
How does the Electron Affinity change from left to right on the Periodic Table? Why? It increases because the electro-negativity increases, and as more electrons are added it makes it harder to gain even more, resulting in more force to gain additional electrons
What type of reaction absorbs more heat? Endothermic
What does delta H mean? Change in enthalpy
Which type of reaction is more stable? exothermic
Is a negative change in enthalpy more or less stable? More stable
Is a positive change in enthalpy more or less stable? Less stable
How does the Electron Affinity change from top to bottom on the Periodic Table? Why? It decrease because as the electronegativity decreases, so does the force to gain additional electrons
Term: Metallic Character How easily a metal loses electrons, as well as the reactivity of a metal
How does the Metallic Character change from left to right on the Periodic Table? Why? It decreases because as the effective nuclear charge increases, it makes it harder to lose an electron because the pull is stronger
How does the Metallic Character change from top to bottom on the Periodic Table? Why? It increases because as the electrons get further from the nucleus due to the shielding effect, making it easier to loose an electron
Term: Aufbau Principle Electrons fill in the lowest energy level possible by increasing energy state
What is the order of the Aufbau Priciple? 1s2 2s2 2p6 3s2 3p6 4s2 3d10
How many orbitals and electrons are there in an s sublevel? 1 orbital and 2 electrons
How many orbitals and electrons are there in a p sublevel? 3 orbitals and 6 electrons
How many orbitals and electrons are there in a d sublevel? 5 orbitals with 10 electrons
How many orbitals and electrons are there in an f sublevel? 7 orbitals with 14 electrons
What is the speed of light? c = 3.00 x 10^8 m/s
What is given off when electrons jump energy levels? Electro-magnetic radiation
Is Electro-magnetic radiation endothermic or exothermic? endothermic
What does lambda represent? Wavelength
Term: Hertz (Hz) measurement of frequency
Term: Frequency how often waves hit object (measured in time)
What does c represent? The speed of light
what does f represent? frequency
What are the three equations that can be made using only c, f, and lambda w is going to = lambda c = wf w = c/f f = c/w
Term: Spectroscopy the study of how much light of a wavelength is absorbed or emitted from an element
What is Planck's Constant? E = hf E = hc/lambda
What are the 3 modes of molecules 1. Translational 2. Rotational 3. Vibrational
Term: Translational movement of a molecule Molecule moves from one position in space to another (creates heat)
Term: Rotational movement of a molecule rotates molecule
Term: Vibrational movement of a molecule vibrates, bends, and stretches or flexes the molecular bonds as well as the magnetic fields
What type of wave can be used to find out how many electrons there are? ultra violet (UV)
What does infrared light do to bonds? break them
Term: benzene ring 6 carbons connected in a cyclic structure
Term: Coulomb's Law force between two charges is proportional to the amount of charge on both charges (opposite or alike) and inversely proportional to the square of the distance between them
What is the equation for Coulomb's Law? Fc = (q1 x q2) / d2
How are force, distance, and charge related Inverse: force & distance Direct: force & charge
What is the dilution formula? Molaritry1 x Volume1 = Molarity2 x Volume2
What is the Beer's Law formula? A = Elc A = absorption E = Molar Absorptivity Constant l = path length (cuvette = 1 cm) c = Concentration
Solve E = A/lc for a generic answer E = A/lc = (1 /cm x(M/L))= (L/M)cm
Created by: Chemistry.Help