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Chapter 3

Molecules, Compounds, and Chemical Equations

Compound Different From Mixture of Elements In a compound, elements combine in fixed, definite proportions; in a mixture, elements can mix in any proportions whatsoever
Ionic Bonds Occur between metal and nonmetal. Involve the transfer of electrons from one atom to another(cation to anion)
Covalent Bonds Occur between two or more nonmetals or mettaloids. Involve the sharing of electrons between two atoms
Cation Positively charged ion
Anion Negatively charged ion
Ionic Bond Bond between a cation and anion. Forms ionic compound
Ionic Compound A lattice - a regular three-dimensional array - of alternating cations and anions
Covalent Bond The bond between two nonmetals. Form molecules
Molecular Compounds Covalently bonded compounds
Chemical Formula Indicates the elements present in the compound and the relative number of atoms or ions for each. There are 3 types of chemical formulas... 1. Empirical.. 2. Molecular.. 3. Structural
Empirical Formula Gives the relative number of atoms of each element in a compound
Molecular Formula Gives the actual number of atoms of each element in a molecule of a compound
Structural Formula Uses lines to represent covalent bonds and show how atoms in a molecule are connected or bonded to each other
Molecular Model A more accurate and complete way to specify a compound
Ball-and-stick molecular model Represents atoms as balls and chemical bonds as sticks; how the two connect reflects a molecule's shape
Space-filling molecular model Atoms fill the space between each other to more closely represent our best estimates for how a molecule might appear if scaled to visible size
Atomic Elements Exist in nature with single atoms as their basic units
Molecular Elements Do not normally exist in nature with single Atoms as their basic units; instead they exist as molecules - two or more atoms of the element bonded together
List of Molecular Elements To Memorize 1. O2.. 2. I2.. 3. Br2.. 4. N2.. 5. Cl2.. 6. F2.. 7. H2..
Molecular Compounds Usually consist of two or more covalently bonded nonmetals. Ex: H2O, CO2, C3H8
Ionic Compounds Composed of cations(usually a metal) and anions(usually one or more nonmetals) bound together by ionic bonds
Formula Unit Basic unit of an ionic compound. The smallest, electrically neutral collection of ions. Ex: Na+, Cl-
Polyatomic Ion An ion composed of two or more atoms
Summarizing Ionic Compound Formulas 1. Ionic compounds always contain + and - ions.. 2. In a chemical formula, the sum of the charges of the + ions(cations) must equal that of - ions(anions).. 3. The formula of an ionic compound reflects the smallest whole-number ratio of atoms
Ionic Compound Common Names Nicknames of sorts learned by familiarity. Ex: NaCl(table salt), NaHCO3(baking soda)
Systematic Names Names made by chemists for different types of compounds including ionic ones
Remember When Naming Compounds Ionic compounds are usually composed of metals and nonmetals; any time you see a metal and one or more nonmetals together in a chemical formula, assume that you have an ionic compound
Binary Compounds Contain only two different elements
Naming Ionic Binary Compounds Name of cation(metal) + base name of anion(nonmetal) + -ide
Naming Binary Ionic Compounds Containing a Metal That Forms More Than One Kind of Cation Name of cation(metal) + (charge of cation(metal) in roman numerals in parentheses) + base name of anion(nonmetal) + -ide
The following are Polyatomic Ions
CO3^-2 Carbonate
C2O4^-2 Oxalate
CH3CO2^-1, CH3COO^-1, C2H3O2^-1 Acetate
CN^-1 Cyanide
O2^-2 Peroxide
OH^-1 Hydroxide
N3^-1 Azide
NO3^-1 Nitrate
NO2^-1 Nitrite
NH4^+1 Ammonium
PO4^-3 Phosphate
(PO3^-3) Phosphite
S2^-2 Disulfide
SO4^-2 Sulfate
SO3^-2 Sulfite
SCN^-1 Thiocyanate
ClO4^-1 Perchlorate
ClO3^-1 Chlorate
ClO2^-1 Chlorite
ClO^-1 Hypochlorite
BrO4^-1 Perbromate
BrO3^-1 Bromate
BrO2^-1 Bromite
BrO^-1 Hypobromite
IO4^-1 Periodate
IO3^-1 Iodate
IO2^-1 Iodite
IO^-1 Hypoiodite
CrO4^-2 Chromate
Cr2O7^-2 Dichromate
MnO4^-1 Permanganate
The Following Are Monatomic Ions
O^-2 Oxide
N^-3 Nitride
P^-3 Phosphide
S^-2 Sulfide
F^-1 Fluoride
Cl^-1 Chloride
Br^-1 Bromide
I^-1 Iodide
Binary Ionic Compounds Containing a Metal That Forms More Than One Kind of Cation Name of cation(metal) + (charge of cation(metal) in roman numerals in parentheses) + base name of anion(nonmetal) + -ide
Oxyanions Anions containing oxygen and another element
Hydrates Ionic compounds containing a specific number of water molecules associated with each formula unit
Molecular Compound Composition Molecular compounds are composed of two or more atoms
Naming Molecular Compounds Prefix + name of 1st element + prefix + base name of 2nd element + -ide
Molecular Compound Prefixes Prefixes given to each element indicate number of atoms present. Normally you don't use the prefix mono- if there is only 1 atom of first element. 1. Hemi 2. Mono 3. Di 4. Tri 5. Tetra 6. Penta 7. Hexa 8. Hepta 9. Octa 10. Nona 11. Deca
Hemi 1/2
Mono 1
Di 2
Tri 3
Tetra 4
Penta 5
Hexa 6
Hepta 7
Octa 8
Nona 9
Deca 10
Atomic Mass The average mass of an atom of an element
Formula Mass(Molecular Mass/Weight) The average mass of a molecule(or a formula unit) of a compound
Formula Mass Equation Formula Mass = (Number of atoms of 1st element in chemical formula * atomic mass of 1st element) + (number of atoms of 2nd element in chemical formula * atomic mass of 2nd element) + ...
Molar Mass of a Compound The molar mass of a compound - the mass in grams of 1 mol of its molecules of formula units - is numerically equivalent to its formula mass. Compound molar mass = formula mass(g)/1 mol
Mass Percent Composition(Mass Percent) An element's percentage of the compound's total mass
Mass Percent Composition Formula Mass Percent of element X = [(mass of element X in 1 mol of compound)/(mass of 1 mol of the compound)] * 100
General Form for Solving Problems Where We Are Asked To Find The Mass of an Element Present in a Given Mass of A Compound Mass compound --> moles compound --> moles element --> mass element
Molecular Formula is Always a Whole Number multiple of the Empirical Formula Molecular Formula = empirical formula x n, where n = 1, 2, 3,..... n = (molar mass)/(empirical formula mass)
Empirical Formula Molar Mass The sum of the masses of all the atoms in the empirical formula
Combustion Analysis A method of obtaining empirical formulas for unknown compounds, especially those containing carbon and hydrogen, by burning a sample of the compound in pure oxygen and analyzing the products of the combustion reaction
Chemical Reaction A process in which one or more substances are converted into one or more different ones
Combustion Reaction A particular type of chemical reaction in which a substance combines with oxygen to form one or more oxygen containing compounds
Chemical Equation A symbolic representation of a chemical reaction; a balanced equation contains equal numbers of the atoms of each element on both sides of the equation
Reactants The substances on the left side of the chemical equation
Products The substances on the right side of the chemical equation
Subscript 0.20 Multiply by 5
Subscript 0.25 Multiply by 4
Subscript 0.33 Multiply by 3
Subscript 0.40 Multiply by 5
Subscript 0.50 Multiply by 2
Subscript 0.66 Multiply by 3
Subscript 0.75 Multiply by 4
Subscript 0.80 Multiply by 5
The Following Are More Charges to Remember P^-3.. Zn^+2.. Ag^+.. Ga^+3.. In^+3
In Naming Acids Ends in... 1. -ide(hydro___ic acid).. 2. -ate(___ic acid).. 3. -ite(___ous acid)
All Polyatomic Ions with N(except NH4-ammonium with +1 charge) Have -1 charge(except NH4 ammonium)
All Polyatomic Ions with P Have -3 charge
All Polyatomic Ions with S(except SCN - thoicyanide with -1 charge)) Have -2 charge
All Polyatomic Ions with CL Have -1 charge
All Polyatomic Ions with Br Have -1 charge
All Polyatomic Ions with I Have -1 charge
All Polyatomic Ions with Cr Have -2 charge
All Polyatomic Ions with Mn Have -1 charge
Created by: TimChemistry1