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Radt 334 Unit 1

Unit 1 chapters 1&2

QuestionAnswer
Which tube did Roentgen used when he discovered x-rays Crookes tube
What substance did Roentgen discover x-rays with barium platinocyanide
Name of first fatality due to x-rays and when Clarence Daly in 1904
When did biological effects of x-ray begin to be studied 1910
Einstein formula that led to development of nuclear power E=mc(2)
What year were X-rays discovered 1895
When was fluoroscopy developed? 1898-1900's
When was nuclear medicine developed? early 1900's
When was CT developed? 1970's
When was MRI developed? 1970's
When was ultrasound developed? 1960's
Branch of physics concerned with the study of objects at rest and in motion mechanics
anything that occupies space matter
measurement unit of mass kg
removal of an electron from an atom ionization
random motion of molecules heat
smallest particles that has all the properties of an element atom
4 measurement systems SI (m,kg,s), CKS (cm,g,s), MKS (m,kg,s), and British (foot, pound, s)
unit for measurement of length meters
time measurement seconds
base quantities of measurement of mechanics mass, length, and time
combination of two or more base quantities derived quantities
velocity v=d/t
average velocity final velocity + initial velocity/ 2
speed of light (c) C = 3 x 10(8)
acceleration (a) final velocity - initial velocity / time
force (F) F= ma
measure of how fast something is moving (speed) / rate of change of position with time velocity
the rate of change of velocity with time acceleration
A body at rest will stay at rest. A body in motion will stay in motion. Newton's first law of motion: inertia
the property of matter that acts to resist a change in its state of motion inertia
the force that acts on an object is equal to the mass of the object multiplied by the acceleration produced Newton's second law of motion: force
unit of measurement for force newton
the product of the mass of an object and its velocity momentum
momentum (p) p = mv
the force applied times the distance over which it is applied work (W)
Work W = Fd
power (P) P = Fd/t
SI unit for power J/s
special quantities exposure, dose, effective dose, and radioactivity
measurement unit for energy Joules (J)
measurement unit for work Joules (J)
measurement unit for power watt
measurement unit for velocity m/s
measurement unit for acceleration m/s(2)
measurement unit for weight (Wt) newton (N)
measurement for momentum (p) kg-m/s
radiation in air roentgen
radiation absorbed dose rad
occupational radiation exposure rem
radioactivity Curie (Ci)
conversion to Si system R, rad, rem multiply by 0.01 / Ci multiply by 3.7 x 10(10)
energy cannot be created or destroyed -rather it is transferred Law of Conservation
7 types of energy potential, kinetic, chemical, electrical, thermal, nuclear, and electromagnetic
two forms of mechanical energy potential and kinetic
types of electromagnetic energy radiowaves, ultraviolet light, microwaves, visible light, infrared light, and x-rays
types of thermal energy conduction, convection, and radiation
transfer of thermal energy by touch conduction
transfer of thermal energy by mechanical means via gas or liquid molecules convection
transfer of thermal energy through infrared radiation radiation
3 natural radiation sources cosmic rays, terrestrial radiation, and internally deposited radionuclides
radionuclides uranium, radium, and radon (radon biggest source)
manmade radiation sources nuclear power generators, consumer items, and diagnostic x-rays (diagnostic x-rays biggest source)
absorbs low energy x-rays filtration
radiation safety ALARA, filtration, Potter-Bucky grids, PBL (positive beam limit), and lead barriers
absorbs scatter radiation Potter-Bucky grid
limits radiation field PBL
protects from secondary radiation exposure lead barriers
hook & eye combinations model of atom / first to describe element being comprised of identical atoms Dalton
plum pudding model of atom / electrons suspended in gelatinous material Thomson
disproved Thomson's model of atom/ discovered atoms had nucleus Rutherford
developed today's model of atom - miniature solar system Bohr
fundamental building blocks of matter / comprised of fundamental particles atoms
electrically neutral / inside nucleus/ 1 amu neutron
positive charge /inside nucleus /1 amu /total numbe = atomic number and determines element proton
negative charge/ outside nucleus/ 0 amu electron
fundamental particles of atoms proton, neutron, and electron
atom's normal state neutral: protons = electrons
when an electron is added or removed from an atom ionized atom
how to figure number of protons in an atom atomic number is equal to number of protons
how to figure the number of neutrons in an atom atomic mass - atomic number = number of neutrons
how to figure number of electrons in an atom number of protons (atomic number) = the number of electrons
atoms that have the same atomic number but different atomic mass isotope
atomic nuclei that have the same atomic mass but different atomic numbers isobar
atoms that have the same number of neutrons but different number of protons isotone
atoms that have the same atomic number and the same atomic mass but different energy levels isomers
Created by: tkmccracke
 

 



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