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chapter 2

Nucleus the central region of an atom
atomic number number of protons
mass number number if protons plus neutrons
atomic weight exact mass of all particles (daltons)
isotopes 2 or more elements with equal numbers of protons but different numbers of neutrons
Elements in the human body are determined by the atomic number of an atom: are the most basic basic chemicals
chemical bonds: ionic bonds attraction between cations and anions. Are atoms with positive or negative charge.
Chemical bonds: covalent bonds strong electron bonds that share.very strong, may have single, double, and triple bonds
chemical bonds: hydrogen bonds main definition weak polar bonds.
molecules atoms joined by strong bonds
compounds atoms joined by strong or weak bonds
Nonpolar covalent bonds bonds that occur between two atoms of the same type
polar colvalent bonds bonds that occur mainly with different typed of atoms. because of the strength of attraction, there is and unequal sharing of electrons
hydrogen bonds these are weak attractive forces that cannot create molecules, but they can change molecular shapes or pull molecules together. Bonding occurs between water molecules
the attraction between molecules slows the rate of evaporation and creates the phenomenon known as surface tension
kinetic energy energy of motion
potential energy stored energy
chemical energy potential energy stored in chemical bonds
decomposition reaction (break down) a reaction that breaks a molecule into smaller fragments (catabolism) AB-> A+B
synthesis reaction (build up) assembles smaller molecules into larger molecules A+B-> AB
Hydrolysis (decomposition reaction) add water water components are added to the product fragments
dehydration synthesis (condensation) take water away water is removed from a complex molecule
reactants = substrates or on the left materials going into a reaction
products or on the right materials coming out of a reaction
Enzymes: (catalysts) -proteins that lower the activation energy of a reaction (speeds things up) - accelerate chemical reactions without themselves being permanently changed or consumed (lowers energy)
excess heat or temperature and changed in acidity lose enzymes
organic molecules based on carbon and hydrogen
inorganic molecules not based on carbon and hydrogen
essential molecules Nutrients and metabolites
essential molecules nutrients essential molecules and elements normally obtained from food
essential molecules: metabolites much larger molecules made or broken down in the body
solubility waters ability to dissolve a solute (sugar) in a solvent (water) to make a solution
re-activity most body chemistry uses or occurs in water
hydrophilic reacts in water: mainly polar bonds
hydrophobic mainly nonpolar bonds: example fats and oil
pH -Hydrogen ions are extremely reactive in solution. The concentration of hydrogen ions in body fluids must be regulated precisely pH: the concentration of hydrogen ions (H+)in a solution
neural pH a balance of h+ and oh-
acid (acidic) pH lower than 7.0 which means.. High H+ low oh-
base: pH higher than 7.0 which means.. low H+ and high OH-
pH scale: has an inverse relationship with H+ concentration which means.. ** more H+ ions mean lower pH, less H+ ions mean higher pH
Polysaccharides chains of many simple sugars
Glycogen is stored glucose
Created by: 100004007253443