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Chemistry Chapter 4

Terms for chapter 4

STM Scanning tunneling microscope allows us to see atoms
Democritus Coined term Atomos and believed in what would become the particle theory of matter
Particle Theory of Matter Particles cannot be divided infinitely without losing their properties.
Continuous Theory of matter States that matter could be divided without end without changing the matter's properties.
Aristotle Believed in what became the continuous theory of matter.
Law of Definite Composition Every compound is formed of elements combined in specific ratios
Dalton's Model Uniformly dense sphere
Thompson's Model plum pudding model
plum pudding model Contains electrons in a sea of positive goo.
Thompson discovered electrons because these bent towards positively charged plate in a discharge tube. cathode rays
Rutherford discovered the nucleus because of this. Gold foil experiment
Rutherford sent these through the gold foil. alpha particles
Atomic number is number of protons in an atom
Alpha particles are this. Helium nuclei - 2 protons, 2 neutrons
Chadwick discovered these. Neutrons
These have a positive charge in an atom. protons
These have a negative charge in an atom. electrons
These have no charge in an atom. neutrons
These are the least massive particles in an atom. electrons
These are the most massive in an atom. neutrons
The analysis of light emitted or absorbed by matter. Spectroscopy
He developed the idea of principle energy levels. Niels Bohr
Niels Bohr model of the atom planetary model
When all electrons are at the lowest energy level in an atom. ground state
Released quantities of energy from an atom are called photons
photons massless light particles
De Broglie said electrons act like waves and particles
Describe the path of electrons and are like probability clouds orbitals
It is impossible to know both the energy and the position of an electron at the same time is called the Heisenberg Uncertainty Principle
This model has orbitals quantum model
Levels in which electrons orbit the nucleus of an atom principle energy levels
No two electrons in an atom can have the same 4 quantum numbers Pauli Exclusion Principle
These are determined by the energy of electrons in the ground state. Quantum Numbers
The S sublevel has how many orbitals 1
The P sublevel has how many orbitals 3
The D sublevel has how many oribitals 5
The F sublevel has how many orbitals 7
The s sublevel can hold how many electrons total 2
The P sublevel can hold how many electrons total 6
The D sublevel can hold how many electrons total 10
The F sublevel can hold how many electrons total 14
As the energy of an electron increases the distance from the nucleus increases
The greater the sublevel the greater the ____ of the electron energy
Arrangement of electrons in atoms is determined by adding electrons to an atom with a lower atomic number. Lower energy levels are filled first. Aufbau Principle
As electrons fill a sublevel,all orbitals receive one electron with the same spin before they begin to pair up Hund's Rule
Protons + Neutrons Mass number
Atoms with the same number of protons but different numbers of neutrons isotopes
1 atomic mass unit (amu) = 1/12th the mass of carbon
The outer most electrons in the atom valence electrons
Atoms that have gained or lost electrons ions
Positive ions Cations
negative ions anions
Cations have ___ protons than electrons more
Anions have ____ protons than electrons fewer
Created by: kdcribb