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Chapter 1 Book

Matter, Measurement, and Problem Solving

Properties of Matter The properties of matter are determined by the properties of atoms and molecules
Atoms Submicroscopic particles that constitute the fundamental building blocks of ordinary matter
Molecules Specific geometrical arrangements of atoms
Chemistry The science that seeks to uderstand the behavior of matter by studying the behavior of atoms and molecules
Empirical Based on observations and experiment
Qualitative Noting or describing how a process happens
Quantitative Measuring or quantifying something about the process
Hypothesis A tentative interpretation or explanation of observations
Experiments Highly controlled procedures designed to generate observations that may confirm or refute a hypothesis
Scientific Law A brief statement that summarizes past observations and predicts future ones
Law of Conservation of Mass In a chemical reaction, matter is neither created nor destroyed
Theory A scientific theory is a model for the way nature is and tries to explain not merely what nature does but why
Atomic Theory Matter is composed of small, indestructible particles called atoms
Matter Anything that occupies space and has mass
Substance A specific instance of matter. Ex: air, water, sand
State of Matter Its physical form
Composition The basic components that make it up
Matter's 3 States Solid, Liquid, and Gas
Solid Matter Atoms or molecules pack close to each other in fixed locations. Fixed volume, fixed shape
Crystalline Solid Matter Atoms of molecules are in patterns with longe-range, repeating order. Ex: table salt and diamond
Amorphous Solid Matter Atoms of molecules do not have any longe-range order. Ex: glass and plastic
Liquid Matter Atoms or molecules pack about as closely as they do in solid matter, but are free to move relative to each other. Fixed volume, not fixed shape
Gaseous Matter Atoms or molecules have a lot of space between them and are free to move relative to one another. Gases are compressible.
Pure Substance Matter that is made up of only one component and its composition is invariant(it does not vary from one sample to another)
Mixture Matter that is composed of two or more components in proportions that can vary from one sample to another
Element A substance that cannot be chemically broken down(decomposed) into simpler substances
Compound A substance composed of two or more elements(in this case hydrogen and oxygen) in a fixed, definite proportion
Heterogeneous Mixture A mixture in which the composition varies from one region of the mixture to another
Homogeneous Mixture A mixture with the same composition throughout
Decanting Carefully pouring off
Distillation A process in which the mixture is heated to boil off the more volatile(easily vaporizable) liquid. Often used for homogeneous mixtures
Filtration Mixture is poured through filter paper in a funnel
Physical Changes Changes that alter only state or appearance, but not composition
Chemical Changes Changes that alter the composition of matter
Physical Property A property that a substance displays without changing its composition
Chemical Property A property that a substance displays only by changing its composition via a chemical change
Energy The capacity to do work
Work The action of a force through a distance
Total Energy Sum of kinetic energy(the energy associated with its motion) and its potential energy(the energy associated with its position or composition)
Thermal Energy The energy associated with the temperature of an object
Law of Conservation of Energy Energy is neither created not destroyed
Summarizing Energy Energy is always conserved in a physical or chemical change, it is neither created nor destroyed. Systems with high potential energy tend to change in a direction that lowers their potential energy, releasing energy into the surroundings
Units Standard quantities used to specify measurements
Meter The standard unit of length
Kilogram The standard unit of mass
Second The standard unit of time
Kelvin Standard unit of temperature
SI Base Units 1. Length -- Meter -- m 2. Mass -- Kilogram -- kg 3. Time -- Second -- s 4. Temperature -- Kelvin -- K 5. Amount of Substance -- Mole -- mol 6. Electric Current -- Ampere -- A 7. Luminous Intensity -- Candela -- cd
Mass The measure of the quantity of matter within an object
Weight The measure of the gravitational pull on an object
Absolute Zero The temperature at which molecular motion virtually stops
Fahrenheit Scale(°F) Water Boils(212 °F).. Water Freezes(32 °F).. Absolute Zero(-459 °F)
Celsius Scale(°C) Water Boils(100 °C).. Water Freezes(0 °C).. Absolute Zero(-273 °C)
Kelvin Scale(Absolute Scale)(K) Water Boils(373 K).. Water Freezes(273 K).. Absolute Zero(0 K)
Temperature Scale Conversion Formula °C=(°F - 32) / 1.8.. K=°C + 273.15
Prefix Multipliers 1. Tera 2. Giga 3. Mega 4. Kilo 5. Deci 6. Centi 7. Milli 8. Micro 9. Nano 10. Pico
Tera T -- 1,000,000,000,000 -- 10^12
Giga G -- 1,000,000,000 -- 10^9
Mega M -- 1,000,000 -- 10^6
Kilo k -- 1000 -- 10^3
Deci d -- 0.1 -- 10^-1
Centi c -- 0.01 -- 10^-2
Milli m -- 0.001 -- 10^-3
Micro |U -- 0.000001 -- 10^-6
Nano n -- 0.000000001 -- 10^-9
Pico p -- 0.000000000001 -- 10^-12
Derived Unit Combination of other units. Ex: speed, volume, density
Volume A measure of space
Density(d) Ratio of a substance's mass(m) to its volume(V). D=M/V
Intensive Property A property that is independent of the amount of the substance. Ex: density
Extensive Property A property that is dependent on the amount of the substance. Ex: mass
Scientific measurements Scientific measurements are reported so that every digit is certain except the last, which is estimated
Significant Figures(Digits) The non-place-holding digits(those that are no simply marking the decimal place). The greater the number of significant figures, the greater the certainty of the measurement
1. Significant Figures Rule 1. All nonzero digits are significant.. 2. Interior zeroes(zeroes between nonzero digits) are significant.. 3. Leading zeroes(zeroes to the left of the first nonzero digit) are not significant. They locate the decimal point..
2. Significant Figures Rule 4. Trailing zeroes(zeroes at the end of a number) are categorized as follows: Trailing zeroes after a decimal point are always significant.. Trailing zeroes before a decimal point(and after a nonzero number) are always significant..
3. Significant Figures Rule Trailing zeroes before an implied decimal point are ambiguous and should be avoided by using scientific notation
Exact Numbers Numbers that have no uncertainty and thus do not limit the number of significant figures in any calculation. They have unlimited significant figures
Accuracy How close the measured value is to the actual value
Precision How close a series of measurements are to one another or how reproducible they are
Random Error Error that has equal probability of being too high or too low. Random error can, with enough trails, average itself out
Systematic Error Error that tends toward being either too high or too low. Systematic error does not average itself out with repeated trials
Created by: TimChemistry1