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Heisenberg uncertainty principle a principle stating that there is a fundamental limitation to how precisely both the position and momentum of a particle can be known at a given time
Electron affinity the energy change associated with the addition of an electron to a gaseous atom
Transition metals several series of elements in which inner orbitals (d or f orbitals) are being filled
Orbital a specific wave function for an electron in an atom. Probability of electron location
Actinides a group of 14 elements following actinium in the periodic table, in which the 5f orbitals are being filled
angular momentum quantum number l, the quantum number relating to the shape of an atomic orbital, which can assume any integral value from 0 to n-1 for each value of n
main-group, or representative, elements elements in the groups labeled 1A, 2A, 3A, 4A, 5A, 6A, 7A, and 8A in the periodic table. the group number gives the sum of the valence s and p electrons
principle quantum number n, the quantum number relating to the size and energy of an orbital; it can have any positive integer value
core electron an inner electron in an atom; one not in the outermost (valence) principle quantum level
Pauli exclusion principle in a given atoms, no two electrons can have the same set of four quantum numbers
Aufbau principle the principle stating that as protons are added one by one to the nucleus to build up the elements, electrons are similarly added to hydrogen-like orbitals
magnetic quantum number ml, the quantum number relating to the orientation of an orbital in space relative to the other orbitals with the same l quantum number. it can have integral values between l and -l, including zero
metalloids elements along the division line in the periodic table between metals and nonmetals. These elements exhibit both metallic and nonmetallic properties.
electronic spin quantum number ms, a quantum number representing one of the two possible values for electron spin; either +1/2 or -1/2
valence electrons the electrons in the outermost principle quantum level of an atom
atomic radii half the distance between the nuclei in a molecule consisting of identical atoms
Hund's rule the lowest energy configuration for an atom is the one having the maximum number of unpaired electrons allowed by the Pauli exclusion principle in a particular set of degenerate orbitals, all with unpaired electrons having parallel spins
first ionization energy the energy required to remove the first electron in an atom, forming the +1 cation
second ionization energy the energy required to remove the second electron in ana atom, forming the +2 cation
isoelectronic ions atoms or ions that contain the same number of electrons despite having different number of protons
electronegativity the tendency of an atom in a molecule to attract shared electrons to itself
Created by: shudonmiller