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Chapter 1 Lecture

Chemistry

TermDefinition
Chemistry The study of matter and the changes matter undergoes
Atoms Fundamental building blocks of matter
Molecules Specific geometrical arrangements of atoms
Law A general statement of past observations
Theory A possible explanation to a law
Matter There are 3 phases... 1. Solid.. 2. Liquid.. 3. Gas
Solid Have definitive shape and volume
Liquid Indefinite shape, definite volume
Gas Indefinitive shape and volume. Gases are compressible
Two Types of Matter 1. Pure Substance... A. Element.. B. Compound.. 2. Mixture... A. Homogeous.. B. Heterogenous
Element A substance that cannot be broken down into simpler substances by chemical means. An element is composed of atoms that have the same atomic number, that is, each atom has the same number of protons in its nucleus as all other atoms of that element.
Compound A substance formed when two or more chemical elements are chemically bonded together. Two types of chemical bonds common in compounds are covalent bonds and ionic bonds
Homogeneous Mixture A term in physical chemistry and material science that refers to substances and mixtures which are in a single phase. All homogenous mixtures are solutions
Heterogenous Mixture Any combination of substances that does not have uniform composition and properties; a mixture of physically distinct substances with different properties
H Hydrogen
He Helium
Li Lithium
Be Beryllium
B Boron
C Carbon
N Nitrogen
O Oxygen
F Fluorine
Ne Neon
Na Sodium
Mg Magnesium
Al Aluminum
Si Silicon
P Phosphorus
S Sulfur
Cl Chlorine
Ar Argon
K Potassium
Ca Calcium
Sc Scandium
Ti Titanium
V Vanadium
Cr Chromium
Mn Manganese
Fe Iron
Co Cobalt
Ni Nickel
Cu Copper
Zn Zinc
Ga Gallium
Ge Germanium
As Arsenic
Se Selenium
Br Bromine
Kr Krypton
Rb Rubidium
Cs Caesium
Fr Francium
Sr Strontium
Ba Barium
Ra Radium
I Iodine
At Astatine
Uus Ununseptium
Xe Xenon
Rn Radon
Uuo Ununoctium
Pt Platinum
Hg Mercury
Au Gold
Ag Silver
Sn Tin
Pb Lead
W Tungsten
U Uranium
Bi Bismuth
Sb Antimony
Separation Tequniques 1. Decanting.. 2. Filtration.. 3. Distiliation
Decanting To carefully pour off a liquid
Filtration Separation through a physical boundary
Distillation Separation based on boiling point difference
Volatile Easily vaporizable
Properties and Changes 1. Physical Change.. 2. Chemical Change
Physical Change Does not change in composition
Chemical Change Changes in composition
Temperature *F(212 <-180-> 32) *C(100 <-100-> 0) K(373 <-100-> 273)
Conversion Equations Between Temperatures K=*C+273.15 *F=9/5*C+32 or *F=1.8*C+32
Terra T = 1,000,000,000,000 = 10^12
Giga G = 1,000,000,000 = 10^9
Mega M = 1,000,000 = 10^6
Kilo k = 1,000 = 10^3
Hecto h = 100 = 10^2
Deca da = 10 = 10^1
Deci d = 0.1 = 10^-1
Centi c = 0.01 = 10^-2
Milli m = 0.001 = 10^-3
Micro |U = 0.000001 = 10^-6
Nano n = 0.000000001 = 10^-9
Pico p = 0.000000000001 = 10^-12
Derived Unit Any of the various units of measurement that are derived from the basic units in the International System. Ex: volume, density
Volume Vcube = L*W*H
Density D = M/V... Density has intensive(intrinsic) property
Intensive(Intrinsic) Property Independent of amount
Extensive(Extrinsic) Property Dependent of amount
Exact Numbers Number that have no uncertainty and thus do not limit the number of significant figures in any calculation
Basic Metric Units 1. Length 2. Mass 3. Time 4. Temperature 5. Amount
Length Meter(m)
Mass Kilogram(k)
Time Seconds(s)
Temperature Kelvin(K)
Amount Mole(mol)
Created by: TimChemistry1
 

 



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