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Spanish Part 3

Part 3 Writing In The Present from Intermediate Spanish For Dummies

TermDefinition
Note about gender for words They are not specific and often have contradictions
Definite Article Expresses "the", as well as the person or specific thing. This must agree with the noun's gender and number.
El muchacho es rubio y las muchachas son morenas. The boy is blonde, and the girls are brunette.
Singular masculine and feminine articles el, la
Plural masculine and feminine articles los, las
El muchacho es grande. The boy is big.
Los libros son interesante. The books are interesting.
La muchacha es alta. The girl is tall.
Las casas son blancas. The houses are white.
El amor es divino. Love is divine.
La tía Maria trae regalos. Aunt Maria brings gifts.
Me gusta el español I like Spanish.
¿Dónde está mi libro de español? Where is my Spanish book?
Escríbame en español. Write to me in Spanish.
Me duelen los pies My feet hurt.
La señora Rivera está aquí. Mrs. Rivera is here.
Siéntate, Señora Rivera Sit down, Mrs. Rivera.
Los Gómez viven en Colombia. The Gómez's live in Colombia.
El domingo voy a México. We are going to Mexico on Sunday.
Hoy es miércoles. Today is Wednesday.
No trabajo en el verano. I don't work in the summer.
Es el cinco de mayo It's May 5th.
Son las once y media. It is 11:30.
Salgo por la tarde. I am going out in the afternoon.
el Brasil Brazil
el Canadá Canada
el Ecuador Ecuador
el Japón Japan
el Paraguay Paraguay
el Perú Peru
El Salvador Salvador
el Uruguay Uruguay
la Argentina Argentina
la China China
La Habana Havana
la India India
los Estados Unidos United States
Vistamos el Brasil. We visited Brazil.
Vivo en los Estados Unidos. I live in the United States.
Yo nací en El Salvador pero pasé muchos años en la Argentina. I was born in Salvador but I spent many years in Argentina.
El Orinoco es un río The Orinoco is a river.
Note about whether or not to use capitalized articles for countries Capitalized articles are actually parts of the names of countries, while lowercase articles are not
El Titanic se hundió. The Titanic sank.
Lo hizó por el bien commún. He did it for the common good.
Decir la verdad es una virtud. Telling the truth is a virtue.
Cuestan seis dólares la media docena. They cost $6 for half a dozen.
Al entrar él se quitó el sombrero. Upon entering, he removed his hat.
Note about omitting the definite article You can do this when one noun explains another (nouns in apposition), Before numerals that express the title of rulers
Madrid, capital de España, es una ciudad popula. Madrid, the capital of Spain, is a popular city.
Carlos Quinto Charles The Fifth
Note about contractions with the definite articles This happens when "a" is joined with "el": a + el = al, or de + el = del
Exception to contractions with the definite articles The -al, or -del endings are not added with the definite articles are attached to the name itself
Vamos al Uruguay. We are going to Uruguay.
Voy a El Salvador. I am going to El Salvador.
Soy del Uruguay. I am from Uruguay.
Soy del El Salvador. I am from El Salvador.
Neuter a word that has no gender in Spanish.
Lo A word that can only be used as a singular. When used before an adjective, it is used as a noun to express an abstract idea or quality.
Lo normal es dormir de noche. It is normal to sleep at night.
Lo + an adjective This means "how"
¿Ves lo serio que es? Do you know how serious it is?
Es increíble lo rápidamente que él corre It's incredible how fast he runs.
Lo preceded by a (a + lo) This means "in the manner of" or "like"
Ella habla a lo loco. She talks like crazy.
Indefinite Article Expresses "a", "an", or "some"
un Singular Masculine Indefinite Article
una Singular Feminine Indefinite Article
unos Plural Masculine Indefinite Article
unas Plural Feminine Indefinite Article
Compró un abrigo. She bought an overcoat.
Es una mujer muy astuta. She is a very astute woman.
Necesito unos limones y unas limas. I need some lemons and some limes.
When to omit indefinite articles Before nouns that describe nationality, profession, or religious / political affiliation. Before unmodified nouns in apposition. Before cien (100), cierto (certainly), mil (thousand), otro (other), qué (what a), semejante (similar), tal (such a).
Note about using the indefinite articles with modified nouns Do NOT omit the indefinite article
El señor Robles es professor. Mr. Robles is the professor.
El señor Robles es un profesor liberal. (ex of not omitting indefinite article) Mr. Robles is a liberal professor.
Cervantes, escritor español, escribió Don Quijote. Cervantes, a Spanish writer, wrote Don Quijote.
cien niños one hundred dollars
ciertos idiomas one hundred ideas
mil dólares one thousand dollars
otra clase another class
qué lástima what a pity
problema semejante a similar problem
tal cosa such a thing
Demonstrative adjectives Adjectives that point directly to the person, place, or thing to which a speaker is referring to. You can use them before nouns, and use them them along with adverbs to reinforce location.
este Singular Masculine Demonstrative Adjective, "this", near to speaker
esta Singular Feminine Demonstrative Adjective, "this", near to speaker
estos Plural Masculine Demonstrative Adjective, "these", near to speaker
estas Plural Feminine Demonstrative Adjective, "these", near to speaker
ese Singular Masculine Demonstrative Adjective, "that", not directly concerned with speaker
esa Singular Feminine Demonstrative Adjective, "that", not directly concerned with speaker
esos Plural Masculine Demonstrative Adjective, "Those", not directly concerned with speaker
esas Plural Feminine Demonstrative Adjective, "Those", not directly concerned with speaker
aquel Singular Masculine Demonstrative Adjective, "That", far from and not directly concerned with the speaker
aquella Singular Feminine Demonstrative Adjective, "That", far from and not directly concerned with the speaker
aquellos Plural Masculine Demonstrative Adjective, "Those", far from and not directly concerned with the speaker
aquellas Plural Feminine Demonstrative Adjective, "Those", far from and not directly concerned with the speaker
Estos pantalones son cortos y esta camisa es larga. These pants are short and this shirt is large.
Tengo que hablar con esa muchacha y esos muchachos ahí. I have to speak to that girl and those boys there.
Aquellos países son grandes y aquellas ciudades son pequeñas Those countries are large and those cities are small.
Este abogado y ese cliente. This lawyer and that client.
Esta casa aquí. This house here.
Esas casa ahí. Those houses there.
Aquella casa allá. That house over there.
allá over there
ahí there
aquí here
Demonstrative pronoun Pronoun that replaces an adjective + noun
éste Singular Masculine Demonstrative Pronoun that means "this one", near or directly concerned with the speaker
ésta Singular Feminine Demonstrative Pronoun that means "this one", near or directly concerned with the speaker
éstos Plural Masculine Demonstrative Pronoun that means "these ones", near or directly concerned with the speaker
éstas Plural Feminine Demonstrative Pronoun that means "these ones", near or directly concerned with the speaker
ése Singular Masculine Demonstrative Pronoun that means "that one", not directly concerned with the speaker
ésa Singular Feminine Demonstrative Pronoun that means "that one", not directly concerned with the speaker
ésos Plural Masculine Demonstrative Pronoun that means "those ones", not directly concerned with the speaker
ésas Plural Feminine Demonstrative Pronoun that means "those ones", not directly concerned with the speaker
aquél Singular Masculine Demonstrative Pronoun that means "that one", far and not directly concerned with the speaker
aquélla Singular Feminine Demonstrative Pronoun that means "that one", far and not directly concerned with the speaker
aquéllos Plural Masculine Demonstrative Pronoun that means "those ones", far and not directly concerned with the speaker
aquéllas Plural Masculine Demonstrative Pronoun that means "those ones", far and not directly concerned with the speaker
Mire éstos y ésta también. Look at these ones at that, too.
Quiero ése y ésas. I want that and those.
Aquél es viejo y aquélla es moderno. That one is old and that one is modern.
Me gusta este coche y ésos. I like this car and those.
Note about using aquél and éste about expressing items in a series Use aquél to express the former item. Use éste to express the latter item.
Patricia es la hermana de Francisco; aquélla es morena y éste es rubio Patricia is the sister of Francis; the former is brunette and the latter is blonde.
Este abogado aqui es fiel y éste lo es también. This lawyer is proud, and so is this one.
Esas vededoras ahí son habladoras y ésas lo son también. Those saleswomen over there are talking and so are those as well.
Esa programadora ahí son inteligente y ésa lo son también. That programmer over there is intelligent, and that one is too.
Aquel ingeniero allá es razonable y aquél lo es también. That engineer there is reasonable and that one is as well.
Feminine Endings to Spanish Singular Nouns -a, -a, -ad, -ie, -ción, -sión, -ud, -umbre
Masculine Nouns That Belong To A Theme Numbers Days of the week Compass points (el norte ('north')) Names of trees (el manzano ('apple tree')) Compound nouns (el mediodía ('noon')) Names of rivers, lakes, mountains, straits, and seas (el Mediterráneo ('the Mediterranean'))
Feminine Nouns That Belong To A Theme Many illnesses (la gripe ('the flu'), la apendicitis ('appendicitis')) Islands and provinces (la Córsega ('Corsica'))
fiel proud
vededoras saleswoman
Reverse Gender Nouns Nouns that, for example, end in -a but are masciline and others that end in -o but are feminine
el clima (masculine) the climate
el drama (masculine) the drama
el idioma (masculine) the language
el poema (masculine) the poem
el problema (masculine) the problem
el programa (masculine) the program
el sistema (masculine) the system
el telegrama (masculine) the telegram
el tema (masculine) the theme
la mano (feminine) the hand
la radio (feminine) the radio
el artista, la artista (both genders) the artist
el dentista, la dentista (both genders) the dentist
el periodista, la periodista (both genders) the journalist
el telefonista, la telefonista (both genders) the operator
el modelo, la modelo the model
el joven, la joven the youth
el estudiante, la estudiante the student
la personal (ALWAYS feminine) the person
la víctima the victim
el capital the capital (money)
el cura the priest
el frente the front
el guía the male guide
el Papa the Pope
el policia the police officer
la capital the capital (country)
la cura the cure
la frente the forehead
la guía the female guide, the guidebook
la papa the potato
la policia the police force, the police woman
Changing a masculine word its feminine form Add a -a ending and remove any accents
el profesor --> (feminine form) la professora
el francés --> (feminine form) la francesa, the French woman
el alemán --> (feminine form) el alemana, the German woman
EXCEPTION: el actor --> (feminine form) la actriz, the actress
EXCEPTION: el perador (emperor) --> (feminine form) la emperatriz, the empress
el duque the duke
la duquesa the duchess
el héroe the hero
la heroína the heroine
el hombre the man
la mujer the woman
el marido the husband
la esposa the wife
el príncipe the prince
la princesa the princess
el rey the king
la reina the queen
el yerno the son-in-law
la nuera the daughter-in-law
Note how to prevent clash of two vowel sounds Use masculine singular article, el (un), with feminine singular nouns that begin with a stressed 'a' sound (a- or ha-) and use las (unas) for their plural forms
el agua the water
las aguas the waters
un alma the soul
unas almas the souls
el ave the bird
las aves the birds
un hacha the axe
unas hachas the axes
el hambre the hunger
las hambres the hungers
la pez fish
la verdad truth
el idioma the language
la muchedumbre the crowd
el yerno the son-in-law
las serie the series
la lección the lesson
el planeta the planet
el avión the plane
el mapa the map
la llave the key
Note On How To Form Plurals Of Words Add -s or -es
el mango the mango
los mangos the mangoes
la manzana the apple
los manzanas the apples
Note On How To Form Plurals Of Words Ending In A Consonant Add a -es
el emperadores the emperors
los reyes the kings
Note On How To Form Plurals Of Words Ending In -n or -s Add or delete an accent
el joven (the youth) --> (plural form) los jóvenes (the youths)
el examen (the test) --> (plural form) los exámenes (the tests)
la canción (the song) --> (plural form) las canciones (the songs)
el francés (the Frenchman) --> (plural form) los franceses (the Frenchmen)
el ingles (the Englishman) --> (plural form) los ingleses (the Englishmen)
el limón (the lemon) --> (plural form) los limones (the lemons)
el melón (the melon) --> (plural form) los melones (the melons)
el melocotón (the peach) --> (plural form) los melocotones (the peach)
Note On How To Form The Plural Form Of Words That End In -z Change the -z to -c BEFORE adding the -es
la luz (the light) --> (plural form) los luces (the lights)
Note On How To Form The Plural Form Of Words That End In -es or -is They don't change their endings except for el mes (the month) --> los meses (the months)
el lunes (the Monday) --> (plural form) los lunes (the Mondays)
la crisis (the crisis) --> (plural form) las crisis (the crises)
Note On How To Form The Plural Form Of Compound Words They do not change in their plural form
el abreletas (the can opener) los abreletas (the can openers)
Note On How To Form The Plural Form Of Nouns Of Mixed Genders Always Use The Masculine Plural Ending
el rey y la reina (the king and the queen) --> (plural form) los reyes (the kings / queens)
el muchacho y la muchacha (the boy and the girl) --> (plural form) los muchachos
Note On Words That Are Always Plural las gafas (eyeglasses), las matemáticas (mathematics), las vacaciones (vacation)
Dos mujeres buscan sus gafas. Two women look for their sunglasses.
buscar to look for
Dos jueces hablan de las leyes. Two judges speak of the laws.
juez judge
de preposition that means "of", and is used as apostrophe "s"
How To Use de To Mean Possession (apostrophe s "'s") Place it between a noun that's possessed, and a common noun that is the possessor
Es el coche de Julio. This is Julio's car.
Using de With A Definite Article Place de + definite article between a noun that's possessed and a common noun representing the possessor
Tengo la abrigo de la muchacha. I have the girl's coat.
De + el = ? del, which means "of the", and is before a MASCULINE common noun
Necesito el libro del profesor. I need the professor's book.
Note About If A Sentence Contains More Than One Possessor Repeat de before each noun
Voy a la case de Roberto y de Marta. I am going to Robert's and Marta's house.
Using de To Answer "De quién es la idea?" Use de to indicate ownership for a specific answer
¿De quién es la idea? Es la idea de Julia y del hermano de Julia.
Es la idea de Julia y del hermano de Julia. It is Julia's and Julia's sister's idea.
Possessive Adjectives Adjectives that are used before the noun that is possessed and expressed "my", "your", "his", "her", "its", "ours", "their". These also have to agree with number and gender for the noun they correspond to.
mi Masculine / feminine singular possessive adjective, "my"
ti Masculine / feminine singular possessive adjective, "your"
su Masculine / feminine singular possessive adjective, "his" / "her" / "your" / "their"
nuestro Masculine singular possessive adjective, "our"
vuestro Masculine singular possessive adjective, "your (you all)"
nuestros Masculine plural possessive adjective, "our"
vuestros Masculine plural possessive adjective, "your (you all)"
nuestra Feminine singular possessive adjective, "our"
vuestra Feminine singular possessive adjective, "your (you all)"
nuestras Feminine plural possessive adjective, "our"
vuestras Feminine plural possessive adjective, "your (you all)"
Formula For Adding Definite Articles (el, la, los, las) + the noun + de + él (ellos, ella, ellas, Ud., Uds)
Necesito su ayuda. I need his help.
Necesito la ayuda de ella. I need the help of the girl.
Me cepillo los dientes dos veces al dia. I brush my teeth two times a day.
Possessive Pronoun Noun that replaces a noun to indicate possession. "mine", "yours", "his"/"hers"/"its"/"yours", "ours", "yours(plural)", "theirs"
Tu coche y el mío son deportivos. Your car and mine are sporty.
Tu hermana y la mía son pelirrojas. Your sister and mine are redheads.
A tu hermano le encanta la ópera; al mío también Your brother likes opera; mine too.
El coche de tu primo es viejo; el del mío es nuevo. Your cousin's car is old; my cousin's is new.
mío Masculine Singular Possessive Pronoun, "mine"
tuyo Masculine Singular Possessive Pronoun, "yours"
suyo Masculine Singular Possessive Pronoun, "his"/"hers"/"its"/"yours", "theirs"
nuestro Masculine Singular Possessive Pronoun, "ours"
vuestro Masculine Singular Possessive Pronoun, "your(you all)"
míos Masculine Plural Possessive Pronoun, "mine"
tuyos Masculine Plural Possessive Pronoun, "yours"
suyos Masculine Plural Possessive Pronoun, "his"/"hers"/"its"/"yours", "theirs"
nuestros Masculine Plural Possessive Pronoun, "ours"
vuestro Masculine Plural Possessive Pronoun, "your(you all)"
mía Feminine Singular Possessive Pronoun, "mine"
tuya Feminine Singular Possessive Pronoun, "yours"
suya Feminine Singular Possessive Pronoun, "his"/"hers"/"its"/"yours", "theirs"
nuestra Feminine Singular Possessive Pronoun, "ours"
vuestra Feminine Singular Possessive Pronoun, "your(you all)"
mías Feminine Plural Possessive Pronoun, "mine"
tuya Feminine Singular Possessive Pronoun, "yours"
suyas Feminine Plural Possessive Pronoun, "his"/"hers"/"its"/"yours", "theirs"
nuestras Feminine Plural Possessive Pronoun, "ours"
vuestras Feminine Plural Possessive Pronoun, "your(you all)"
Note about using a definite article and ser ("to be") Omit the definite article after using the verb, ser, "to be"
Este asiento es mío, no es suyo. This seat is mine, not yours.
Mi oficina es lujosa. My office is luxurious.
Los empleados de la Señora López son simpáticos. Mrs. Lopez's employees are friendly.
simpáticos friendly
Su contrato es importante. Your contract is important.
El tuyo es más importante. Yours is very important.
Sus ventas son elevadas. Your sales are high.
venta sale
elevada high
Sus beneficios son excelentes. Your benefits are excellent.
Los míos son estupendos. Mine are great.
estupendos great
Tu secretaria es prudente. Your secretary is wise.
Created by: SamB91