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Solutions/Solubility

TermDefinition
Solute the compound dissolved in the solvent
Solvent the most common compound in a solution, typically water in a liquid solution
Solution combination of solute and solvent
Strong Electrolyte Substance that completely ionizes in water and therefore is able to conduct an electric current
Weak Electrolyte Substance the only partially ionizes in water and therefore is only able to conduct a weak electric current
Nonelectrolyte Substance that does not ionize in water, allowing no current to conduct through the solution
Molarity moles solute/liter solution
Molality moles solute/kilogram solvent
Normality moles of acidic protons/liter solution OR moles of basic hydroxides/liter solution. Helps emphasize strength of acids and bases that have more than one H+/OH-
Solubility Rule #1 Most nitrate salts (NO3-) are soluble.
Solubility Rule #2 Most salts containing alkali metal ions (Li+, Na+, K+, Cs+, Rb+) and the ammonium ion (NH4+) are soluble.
Solubility Rule #3 Most chloride, bromide, and iodide salts are soluble. Notable exceptions are salts containing the ions Ag+, Pb2+, and Hg2^2+.
Solubility Rule #4 Most sulfate salts are soluble. Notable exceptions are BaSO4, PbSO4, Hg2SO4, and CaSO4.
Solubility Rule #5 Most hydroxides are only slightly soluble. The important soluble hydroxides are NaOH and KOH. The compounds Ba(OH)2, Sr(OH)2, and Ca(OH)2 are marginally soluble.
Solubility Rule #6 Most sulfide (S^2-), carbonate (CO3^2-), chromate (CrO4^2-), and phosphate (PO4^3-) salts are only slightly soluble, except for those containing the cations in Rule 2.
Net Ionic Equation Chemical equation of a reaction in which any spectator ions are removed (so in a precipitation reaction, the ions that do not precipitate are left out of equation)
ppm parts per million, 10^-6 parts solute in a solution
ppb parts per billion, 10^-9 parts solute in a solution
unsaturated a solution in which more solute can be added and dissolved
saturated a solution in which more solute added will not be dissolved and will remain solid
super saturated a solution in which more solute is dissolved than would be possible under normal circumstances
dilute a solution that has less solute dissolve, weak solution (i.e. weak coffee)
concentrated a solution that has more solute dissolved, strong solution (i.e. strong coffee)
freezing point depression the lowering of the freezing point of a solution due to amount of solute dissolved in the solution
boiling point elevation the raising of the boiling point of a solution due to amount of solute dissolved in a solution
freezing point depression equation deltaT = Kf*i*m. deltaT is the temp change from the freezing point of the pure solution, Kf is the molal freezing point depression constant, i is the number of ions produced by the solute when dissolved, and m is the molality of the solute
boiling point elevation equation deltaT = Kb*i*m. deltaT is the temp change from the boiling point of the pure solution, Kf is the molal boiling point elevation constant, i is the number of ions produced by the solute when dissolved, and m is the molality of the solute
Osmosis the passing of a solvent through a semi-permeable membrane toward the side containing a solution of higher concentration
osmotic pressure the pressure that would have to be applied to a pure solvent to prevent it from passing into a given solution by osmosis, often used to express the concentration of the solution.
vapor pressure The vapor pressure of a liquid is the equilibrium pressure of a vapor above its liquid (or solid); that is, the pressure of the vapor resulting from evaporation of a liquid (or solid) above a sample of the liquid (or solid) in a closed container.
Created by: shudonmiller