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# Prob & Stat Prep

Statistics The science of conducting studies to collect, organize, summarize, analyze, and draw conclusions from data.
How are statistics used in everyday life? 1. In fields of human endeavor - sports and public health 2. To analyze the results of a survey 3. As a tool in scientific research to make decisions based on controlled experiments. 4. Operations research, quality control estimation, and predictions
Reasons to study statistics. 1. To be able to understand statistical studies. 2. To be able to conduct research, design experiments, make predictions, and communicate results. 3. To become better consumers.
Variable A characteristic or attribute that can assume different values.
Data The values the variable assume
Random Variables Variable whose values are determined by chance
Data Set A collection of data values
Data Value (Datum) Each value of the data set
Probability The chance of an event occurring
Population Consists of all subjects that are being studied
Sample A group of subjects selected from a population
Descriptive Statistics Consists of the collection, organization, summarization, and presentation of data.
Inferential Statistics Consists of generalizing from samples to populations, performing estimations and hypothesis tests, determining relationships among variables,and making predictions.
Quantitative Variables Numerical and can be ordered and ranked
Discrete Variables Variables that assume values that can be counted.
Continuous Variables Variables that can assume an infinite amount of values between any two specific values. (Usually obtained by measuring - fractions or decimals)
Find the boundaries: .43 sec .425 - .435 seconds
Nominal Level of Measurement Classifies data into mutually exclusive (non-overlapping) exhausting categories in which no order or ranking can be imposed on the data.
Ordinal Level of Measurement Classifies data into categories that can be ranked; however, precise differences between the ranks do exist.
Interval Level of Measurement Ranks data and precise differences between units of measure do exist;however, there is no meaningful.
Ratio Level of Measurement Possesses all the characteristics of the interval measurement and there exists a true zero.
What are the two purposes of data collection? 1. To describe situations or events 2. To help people make better decisions before acting
3 Ways to Collect Data Surveys, Mailed Questionnaire, Personal Interview
Telephone Surveys Advantage-Less costly,people can be more candid, not face to face. Disadvantages- Not all people can be surveyed, may not be home,unlisted, or cell phones.
Mailed Questionnaire Advantages - can cover a wider geographic area, less expensive to conduct, respondents can remain anonymous. Disadvantages - low number of responses
Personal Interview Advantages- can obtain in-depth response. Disadvantages- Interviewers need to be trained, more costly, interviewer may be biased, may not be a good sampling of people interviewed.
Random Sampling A sampling technique where you randomly select a group of subjects for study from a larger group.
Systematic Sampling A sampling technique where you take a random sample of the population by using every kth variable.
Stratified Sampling A sampling technique where you take samples from each stratum or sub-group of a population.
Cluster Sampling A sampling technique where the entire population is divided into groups, or clusters, and a random sample of these clusters are selected.
Sequential Sampling used in quality control--successive units taken form the production line and sampled to ensure the product meets the standards
Double Sampling A large population is given a questionnaire to see who meets the requirements for the study. After reviewing the questionnaire a smaller population is defined and a sample is chosen from this population.
Things that make a survey question bad 1. Asking biased questions 2. Using confusing words 3. Asking double barreled questions 4. Using double negatives in a question 5. Ordering questions improperly
Qualitative Variables Variables that can be placed into distinct categories(characteristics not numbers)
Created by: dlibecap