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# Prob&Stat Chapter 1

### Prob&Stat Chapter 1 + 14.1, 14.2

TermDefinition
variable a characteristic or attribute that can assume different values (x)
data measurements or observations for a variable (ages 4,7, 19)
random variable a variable whose values are determined by chance (numbers on a die)
data set a collection of data values (3 people with favorite color blue. 6 people with favorite color pink)
data value - datum a value in a data set (the 6 people with favorite color pink)
probability the chance of an event occurring (1/6 chance of rolling a three on a die)
population the totality of all subjects possessing certain common characteristics that are being studied (100 people being sampled for their favorite color)
sample a group of subjects selected from the population (ages 12-15 being used)
hypothesis testing a decision-making process for evaluating claims about a population (feeding an animal different foods to see which makes it grow larger)
independent variable (exploratory) a variable in correlation and regression analysis that can be controlled or manipulated (amount of food fed)
dependent event (outcome, resultant) events for which the outcome or occurrence of the first event affects the outcome or occurrence of the second event in such a way that the probability is changed (height of animal fed)
true vs. quasi experiments a study that uses intact groups rather than random assignment of subjects to groups
confounding variable a variable that influences the outcome variable but cannot be separated from the other variables that influence the outcome variable
Hawthorne event an effect on an outcome variable caused by the fact that subjects of the study know that they are participating in the study
control group a group in an experimental study that is not given any special treatment (group of people eating their same diet)
treatment group a group in an experimental study that has received some type of treatment (group of people given higher-iron diets)
margin of error the difference between the point estimate of a parameter and the actual value of the parameter (54 expected to be working from home, 49 sampled work from home)
margin of error interval the value of the difference between the point estimate of a parameter and the actual value of the parameter (54 expected to be working from home, 49 sampled work from home. margin of error = 5)
biased question when some type of systematic error has been made in the selection of the subjects (asking a person living in a metropolitan area what it's like living on a farm)
unbiased question a sample chosen at random from the population that is, for the most part, representative of the population (asking a farmer what it's like living on a farm)
sequential sampling a sampling technique used in quality control in which successive units are taken from production lines and tested to see whether they meet the standards set by the manufacturing company
double sampling a sampling method in which a very large population is given a questionnaire to determine those who meet the qualifications for a study' the questionnaire is reviewed, a second smaller population is defined, and a sample is selected from this group
multistage sampling a sampling technique that uses a combination of sampling methods
Created by: guitarzero80