click below

click below

Normal Size Small Size show me how

# &th Grade Math Terms

### Math Terms, &th Grade

Question | Answer |
---|---|

rational numbers | numbers that can be written as a fraction |

irrational numbers | numbers that can not be written as a fraction, never terminates or repeats |

scientific notation | a small way of writing numbers whose abosolute value is very large or very small |

radical sign | the symbol used to indicate a square root |

Pythagorean Theorem | the formula between the lengths of the legs and the hypotenuse for any right triangle |

ratio | comparison of two numbers or quantities by division |

rate of change | a rate describing how one quantity changes in relation to another |

percent of change | the percent that an amount changes from its original amount |

vertical angles | opposite angles formed by intersecting lines |

complementary angles | where the sum of the measures equals 90 degrees. |

supplementary angles | where the sum of the measures equals 180 degrees. |

reflection | the mirror image produced by flipping a figure over a line |

translation | the movement of a figure from one position to another without turning it |

radius | the segment from the center to any point on the circle |

diameter | a chord that passes through the center |

circumference | the distance around a circle |

complex figure | made up of two or more shapes |

function | a relationship that assigns exactly one output value for each input value |

slope | the ratio of the rise,or vertical change, to the run,or horizontal change |

direct variation | what the relationship is called when the ratio of two variable quantities is constant |

slope-intercept form | the nonporportional linear function formula of y=mx+b |

y-intercept | the y-coordinate of the point where the line crosses the y-axis. |

scatter plot | a graph that shows the relationship,if any, between two sets of data |

nonlinear functions | functions that do not have constant rates of change |

monomial | a number, a variable, or a product of a number and one or more variables |

lateral face | any flat surface of a solid that is not a base |

lateral surface area | the sum of the areas of a solids lateral faces |

total surface area | the sum of the areas of all of a solids surfaces |

quartiles | values that divide a set of data into four equal parts |

lower quartile | the median of the lower half of a set of data |

upper quartile | the median of the upper half of a set of data |

interquartile range | the difference between the upper quartile and the lower quartile |

outlier | data that are more than 1.5 times the value of the interquartile range beyond either quartile |

inequality | an open sentence that uses the symbol <,≤,>,or ≥ to compare two quantities |

Ratio | A comparison of two numbers using division. |

Rational Coefficient | A rational number which multiplies a variable. |

Rational Number | A number that can be expressed as a ratio of two integers. |

Relative Frequency | The ratio of the actual number of favorable events to the total possible number of events. |

Right Prism | A prism where the lateral faces are at right angles to the base. |

Right Rectangular Prism | A prism with six rectangular faces where the lateral edge is perpendicular to the base. |

Right Rectangular Pyramid | A pyramid that has its |

Right Triangle | A triangle that has one 90º angle. |

Scale Drawing | A drawing of an object or structure showing all parts in the same proportion of their true size. |

Signed Number | Positive or negative number. |

Simulation | Carrying out a simple experiment to collect data. |

Spread | A measure of how much a collection of data is spread out. Commonly used types include range and quartiles. (Also known as measures of variation or dispersion.) |

Statistical Variability | A variability or spread in a variable or a probability distribution. Common examples are the variance, standard deviation, and interquartile range. |

Statistics | The science of collecting, organizing, representing, and interpreting data. |

Supplementary Angles | If the sum of the measures of two angles is 180°. Two angles that form a straight line. |

Surface Area | The total area of the faces (including the bases) and curved surfaces of a solid figure. |

Surface Area (cube) | Sum of the area of all 6 sides |

Surface Area (right prism) | Surface Area = lateral area + area of two ends |

Triangle | A polygon with three angles and three sides. |

Unlikely Event | An event that will probably not happen. An outcome with a probability between 0 and 0.5. |

Volume | The number of cubic units it takes to fill a figure. |

Volume (right prism) | V = area of base • length |

X-coordinate | In an ordered pair, the value that is always written first. |

Y-coordinate | In an ordered pair, the value that is always written second. |

Improper fraction | A fraction in which the numerator is greater than the denominator, such as 7/3 or 4/4. |

mixed number | A number consisting of an integer and a proper fraction. 2 1/3 |

proper fraction | A fraction that is less than one, with the numerator less than the denominator. 3/8 |

Is 9/9 improper fraction or proper fraction? | improper fraction |

Is 2/4 a proper fraction or improper fraction? | proper fraction |

How to change a mixed number to an improper fraction? | Multiply the denominator by the whole number, add the numerator, place your total (sum) over the original denominator. |

True or false you may write 6 as an improper fraction (5 4/4 or 12/2) | True |

Is 3 4/4 a mixed fraction or an improper fraction? | improper fraction |

How to change 15/5 into a whole number? | Divide the numerator by the denominator, and write down the number. |

How to change the improper fraction to a mixed number? | Divide the numerator by the denominator and place the remainder over the original denominator. |

What is a whole number? | A number without fractions; an integer. |

How to round fractions to the nearest whole number? | Check if the fraction value is less than ½ , then keep the Whole Number value same and it will be the round off value. Check if the fraction value is greater than ½ , then add 1 in the whole number and drop the fraction number , that will be the result value . |

Find the perimeter of a rectangle whose length is 1/4 inch and whose width is 5/3 inch. | You know that a rectangle has two pairs of equal sides, so the equation is: 1/4 + 1/4 + 5/3 + 5/3 = perimeter |

acute angle | An angle measuring more than zero degrees and less than 90 degrees |

congruent | Having the same size and shape |

difference | The amount that remains after one number has been subtracted from another |

exponent | A number that tells how many times the base is multiplied by itself |

reciprocal | The inverse of a fraction; when multiplied by the original fraction, it results in a product that equals one |

vertex (vertices - plural) | The point of intersection for two sides of a plane figure, three sides of a solid figure, or the endpoints of two rays that form an angle. |

expression | A combination of numbers and variables connected by one or more operations signs |

polygon | Three or more line segments in a plane that forms a closed figure. The line segments never cross but meet at their endpoints. |

product | The result of muliplying two or more numbers |

hexagon | A polygon with six sides. |

range | The difference between the least and greatest values in a set of numbers |

scalene triangle | A triangle with sides of different lengths and no two angles are the same |

area | Surface space that is measured in square units |

perimeter | The distance around a figure |

circumference | The distance around a circle (the perimeter of a circle) |

straight angle | An angle that measures 180 degrees |

obtuse angle | An angle measuring more than 90 degrees and less than 180 degrees |

complementary angle | Two angles whose sum equals 90 degrees |

diameter | A line segment that passes through the center of a circle and has its endpoints on the circle |

sum | The total of two or more numbers being added |

quotient | The result of dividing one number by another; the solution to a division problem |

dividend | In a division problem, it's the number being divided |

divisor | In a division problem, the number that an amount is divided by |

mean | The sum of a group of numbers divided by the number of numbers; also known as the average |

median | A value found by ordering a group of data from least to greatest and choosing the middle value of the group. |

mode | In a group of values, the value that occurs most often |

pyramid | A solid figure that has triangles for its sides and a polygon as its base |

quadrilateral | A polygon that has four sides |

parallelogram | a quadrilateral with two pairs of congruent, parallel sides |

rectangle | A parallelogram with four right angles |

reflection | A mirror image of a figure shown over a line of reflection |

rate | A ratio that compares two different types of quantities |

equation | A mathematical sentence that uses an equal sign |

scale drawing | A drawing of an object that is different in size (usually smaller than the original) but keeps the same proportions |

trapezoid | A quadrilateral with one pair of parallel sides |

cylinder | A solid figure with two congruent and parallel circular bases |

octagon | An eight-sided polygon |

pentagon | A polygon with five sides |

percent | The ratio of a number to 100 (per one hundred); the symbol % |

similar figures | Figures that have the same shape but different sizes; their sides are proportional, while their corresponding angles are equal |

equilateral triangle | A triangle that has three equal sides and three equal angles |

radius | A length that is half the diameter of a circle; the distance from the center of the circle to the circle itself |

isosceles triangle | A triangle with two equal sides and two equal angles |

right triangle | A triangle with one right angle |

supplementary angles | Two angles whose sum is 180 degrees |

order of operations | Rules that tell which steps to follow when solving an expression |

rhombus | A parallelogram with all sides equal and congruent |

lowest terms | A fraction with all common factors (other than 1) factored out of the numerator and denominator |

square root | A number that when multiplied by itself results in the original number |

prism | a solid figure that has two congruent, parallel polygons as its bases. Its sides are parallelograms. |

ratio | A comparison of the two values of two numbers |

proportion | An equation stating that two ratios are equal |

simplify | To make a fraction easier to work with by taking out common factors |

unit ratio | A ratio that shows the cost per unit of measure |

quadrant | One of the four regions formed by the intersection of the axes of a coordinate graph |

x-axis | The horizontal number line of a coordinate graph |

y-axis | The vertical number line of a coordinate graph |

x-coordinate | The value on the x-axis used to locate a point on the coordinate graph. It is the first value in an ordered pair. |

y-coordinate | The value on the y-axis used to locate a point on the coordinate graph. It is the second value in an ordered pair. |

ordered pair | Two numbers listed in a specific order; it describes a point on the coordinate graph |

reciprocal | one of a pair of numbers whose product is 1: the reciprocal of 2/3 is 3/2 |

metric | a system of related measures that facilitates the quantification of some particular characteristic |

mass | a body of matter without definite shape |

precision | the quality of being reproducible in amount or performance |

weight | a system of units used to express the weight of something |

vertex | the point of intersection of lines or the point opposite the base of a figure |

plane | (mathematics) an unbounded two-dimensional shape |

congruent | Having the same size and shape |

bisect | to divide into two equal parts |

line of symmetry | a line that divides a figure into two halves that are mirror images of each other |

rotational symmetry | The ability of a figure to be rotated less than a full circle and exactly match its original image |

similar figures | figures that have the same shape but not necessarily the same size |

hypotenuse | the side of a right triangle opposite the right angle |

polygon | a closed plane figure bounded by straight sides |

parallelogram | a quadrilateral whose opposite sides are both parallel and equal in length |

scalene triangle | a triangle with no two sides of equal length |

ratio | a comparison of two numbers by division |

rate | the relative speed of progress or change |

equal ratios | 2 sets of numbers that show the same comparison |

proportion | the quotient obtained when the magnitude of a part is divided by the magnitude of the whole |

cross products rule | ... |

scale drawing | A diagram of an object in which the dimensions are in proprtion to the actual dimensions of the object. |

Counting Principle | all possible outcomes (multiply the numbers to find.) |

Compound Events | in probability when more than one thing is happening, for example rolling a dice twice |

Outcome | A possible result of a probability experiment. |

Complement | 1. Something that completes 2. To make whole |

Simulation | A technique used for answering real-world questions or making decisions in complex situations where an element of chance is involved. |

Experimental Probability | The ratio of the number of times an outcome occurs to the total amount of trials performed. |

Independent Event | The outcome of one event does not affect the outcome of the second event |

Dependent Event | The outcome of one event does affect the outcome of the second event |

Sample Space | All possible outcomes of an experiment |

Theoretical Probability | Probability based on comparing the number of possible favorable outcomes to the number of total possible outcomes |

Random Sample | A sample that fairly represents a population because each member has an equal chance of inclusion |

Inference | A conclusion one can draw from the presented details. |

Mean Absolute Deviation (MAD) | The average distance between each data value and the mean. |

Population | All the cases in a group being studied, from which samples may be drawn. |

Biased Question | a question that encourages a particular response |

Variability | The extent to which the scores in a data set tend to vary from each other and from the mean. |

Interquartile Range (IQR) | the third quartile minus the first quartile, Interval between the 75th and 25th percentile |

Line Plot | A graph that displays data by using X's above a number line, a graph that shows the frequency of data along a number line |

Proportion | A statement where two fractions/ratios are equal |

Sample | A group of subjects selected from a population. |

Frequency Table | A table for organizing a set of data that shows the number of times each item or number appears. |

Random Sample | A sample that fairly represents a population because each member has an equal chance of inclusion |

Hypotenuse | the side of a right triangle opposite the right angle, the longest side of a right triangle |

Leg of Triangle | Either of the two sides that form the right angle in a right triangle. |

Parallel Line | Lines in the same plane which never touch |

Perpendicular Lines | Lines that intersect to form right angles |

Solution | A value or values which, when substituted for a variable in an equation, make the equation true |

Statement | a statement of a mathematical relation |

Similar | Figures that have the same shape but not necessarily the same size |

Congruent | Having the same size and shape |

Complementary Angles | Two angles whose sum is 90 degrees, two angels that add up to 90 degrees |

Supplementary Angles | Two angles whose sum is 180 degrees, two angels that add up to 180 degrees |

Equation | A mathematical sentence that contains an equals sign. |

Inequality | A statement that compares two quantities using <, >, ≤,≥, or ≠ |

Inverse | If p is q, the inverse of that statement would be if not p then not q. |

Reciprocals | (mathematics) one of a pair of numbers whose product is 1: the reciprocal of 2/3 is 3/2 |

Quotient | the answer to a division problem |

Divisor | A number by which another number is divided |

Product | the answer to a multiplication problem |

Difference | the answer to a subtraction problem |

sum | the answer to an addition problem |

compound inequality | Two or more inequalities joined together by "and" or "or" |

solution of inequality | any value that makes the inequality true |

1 mile | to measure distance, equal to 5,280 feet |

1 pound | to measure mass (weight), equal to 16 ounces |

1 calorie | The amount of energy required to raise the temperature of 1 gram of water by 1 degree Celsius. |

1 gram | to measure mass (weight), equal to 1,000 milligrams |

1 meter | to measure distance, equal to 3 feet |

1 inch | to measure distance, equal to 2.54 cm |

1 minute | to measure time, equal to 60 seconds |

1 second | the base unit of time |

variable | A letter or symbol used to represent a number. |

algebraic expression | A mathematical phrase involving at least one variable and sometimes numbers and operation symbols. |

like terms | same variable raised to the same power |

coefficient | A number multiplied by a variable in an algebraic expression. |

inverse operations | Operations that do the exact opposite of each other; they undo each other (addition and subtraction, for example) |

solve | find the answer to a mathematical problem |

simplify | to make the problem less complicated by combining like terms and reducing fractions |

evaluate | to solve |

decimal | A number with one or more digits to the right of the decimal point, such as $2.05. |

terminating decimal | A decimal number that ends or terminates; example: 6.75 |

integer | All whole numbers (both positive and negative) and zero.,examples are -3, -2, -1, 0, 1, 2, 3 |

Circumference | The distance around a circle, (pi x diameter) |

Area | A measure of how much surface an object has |

Volume | A measure of the size of a body or region in three-dimensional space |

Isosceles Triangle | a triangle that has at least 2 congruent sides |

Scalene Triangle | A triangle with no congruent sides |

Rhombus | A parallelogram with four equal sides |

Perfect Square | a square of a whole number |

Square Root | a number that when multiplied by itself equals a given number |

Pyramid | A solid shape with a polygon as a base and triangular faces that come to a point (vertex or apex) |

Prism | A solid figure that has two congruent, parallel polygons as its bases. Its sides are parallelograms |

Ratio | shows the relative sizes of two or more values, Examples: 1:3 (for every one boy there are 3 girls) 1/4 are boys and 3/4 are girls 0.25 are boys (by dividing 1 by 4) 25% are boys (0.25 as a percentage) |

Rate | A ratio that compares two quantities measured in different units |

Cone | A three dimensional shape with a circular base and a vertex opposite the base |

Cylinder | A solid figure with two congruent and parallel circular bases |

Face | Any of the individual surfaces of a solid object. |

Cross Section | A view into the inside of something made by cutting through it. |

Surface Area | The sum of all the areas of all surfaces of a solid. |

Pythagorean Theorem | a²+b²=c² |

Used for a right triangle (with a 90 degree angle) is composed of two legs and a hypotenuse (side opposite the right angle). | |

Vertices | The point of intersection of two sides of a polygon. The point of intersection of three edges of a space figure. |

Base | The surface that a solid object stands on, or the bottom line of a shape such as a triangle or rectangle |

Edges | The intersection of faces of a 3-D figure |

Vertical | In an up-down position. Upright. |

Horizontal | Going side-to-side, like the horizon. Parallel to the horizon. |

Polygon | A 2-dimensional shape with straight sides. |

Trapeziod | a quadrilateral with exactly one pair of parallel sides |

Acute Angle | An angle that is less than 90 degrees |

Obtuse angle | An angle between 90 and 180 degrees |

Pentagon | 5 sided polygon |

Hexagon | 6 sided polygon |

Equilateral Triangle | A triangle in which all three sides are the same length. |

Right Triangle | A triangle that has a 90 degree angle. |

Right Angle | 90 degree angle |

Radius of a circle | is the line segment connecting the center of the circle to any point on the circle |

Percent | A ratio that compares a number to 100, % |

Factor | numbers you can multiply together to get another number |

Discount | A reduction in price |

Mark Up | Amount added to cost of merchandise to determine the selling price |

Mode | The number that occurs most often in a set of data |

Median | Middle Number, put numbers in order and find the middle number |

Mean | Average, Add all numbers and divide by the number of numbers |

Commission | A fee paid for services, usually a percentage of the total cost |

Tip | an extra cost paid for gratuity of a service. Typically 20% for a server in a restuarant |

Scale Drawing | A diagram of an object in which the dimensions are in proportion to the actual dimensions of the object. |

Percent of Change | the percent a quantity increases or decreases from its original amount |

Total cost | Sum of the fixed and variable costs |

fraction | A part of a whole. |

prime number | a number that can only be divided my 1 and itself. |

geometric figure | any set of points on a plane or in space |

mixed number | a number made up of a whole number and a fraction |

unit rate | A comparison of two measurements in which one of the terms has a value of 1. Example: $3 per gallon |

indirect measurement | the technique of using similar figures and proportions to find a measure |

equivalent ratios | Ratios that have the same value. |

cross products | the product of the numerator of one fraction with the denominator of the other fraction. |

inverse numbers | reciprocals |

rational numbers | Any number that can be made by dividing one integer by another. The word comes from "ratio". |

irrational numbers | A real number that cannot be written as a simple fraction - the decimal goes on forever without repeating. |

distributive property | a way in which multiplication is applied to addition of two or more numbers in which each term inside a set of parentheses can be multiplied by a factor outside the parentheses, such as: a(b + c) = ab + ac |

ordering | Putting things into their correct place following some rule. |

repeating decimal | a decimal that repeats a digit or group of digits forever |

commutative property | The order of two numbers may be switched around and the answer is the same. Example: 8 + 3 = 3 + 8 |

Absolute Value | The distance a number is from zero on a number line. ALWAYS POSITIVE |

Additive inverses | An integer and its opposite (for example, -4 and 4); -4 + 4 = 0 |

Less than | |

greater than | > |

Simplest form | a fraction that is reduced completely |

number line | a line for representing and graphing numbers. Each point on the line corresponds to a number. |

similar polygons | Polygons that have the same shape, but not necessarily the same size. Corresponding sides of similar polygons are proportional. |

midpoint | A point that divides a segment into two congruent segments |

diameter of a circle | A line that passes through the center of the circle, connecting any two points |

Sphere | A solid shape that is perfectly round like a ball. No faces, edges, or vertices. |

Expression | a group of symbols that make a mathematical statement |

even number | A whole number ending with 0, 2, 4, 6, or 8 in the ones place. |

odd number | A whole number ending with 1, 3, 5, 7, or 9 in the ones place. |

solution set | The set of all values of the variable that make the equation true. |

regular price | the amount you pay before taxes and if there were no sales or discount |

total income | total amount earned in given period |

number cube | A fair cube that has numbers on the faces (example.- dice) |

average | Mean, add all numbers, divide by number of numbers |

approximate | Not exact, but close enough to be reasonably correct |

dimension | the magnitude of something in a particular direction (especially length or width or height) |

scale model | A model of an object in which the dimensions are in proportion to the actual dimensions of the object. |

retail price | cost + markup or discount |

manufacturer price | Lowest price, Price charged by the manufacturer to the distributor. |

intersect | A point where lines touch |

degrees | A unit for measuring angles or temperature. |

sales tax rate | the percentage used to calculate sales tax |

tax | extra cost added to the retail price |

equivalent | Equal, same value |

Volume of prism | area of base x height |

Volume of pyramid | 1/3(area of base) x height |

Area of circle | πr² |

Circumference of a circle | 2πr |

area of rectangle | Length x Width |

area of triangle | 1/2 (base) x (height) |

Surface Area of rectangular Prism | 2lw+2lh+2wh |

Absolute Value | The distance from 0 on a number line. |

Additive Inverse | The opposite of an integer. The sum of an integer and its additive inverse is zero. |

Box & Whisker Plot | A graph that show the minimum and maximum values, the lower and upper quartiles, and the median of the data set. |

Coefficient | The numerical term in a tern of an expression. |

Cube Root | A number n whose cube equals n^3. |

Function | A relationship in which each member of the domain has a unique range. |

Greatest Common factor | The greatest factor that is common to two or more numbers. |

Greatest Common Divisor | The least common multiple of two or more denominators. |

Histogram | A bar graph that shows the frequency of data for intervals. |

Interquartile Range | The difference between the upper quartile and lower quartile in a data set. |

Linear Equation | An equation that can be represented as a straight line on a graph. |

Perfect Square | The product of a whole number multiplied by itself. |

Scatter Plot | A graph that shows the relationship between quantities |

Scientific Notation | A number written as the product in which the first factor is greater than or equal to 1 and less than 10 and the second factor is a power of 10. |

Slope | A number that shows how much a line tilts; the change in y over the change in x. |

Square Root | A number n whose square equals n |

Unit Rates | A rate in which the second measurement or amount is 1 unit. |

Greatest Common Divisor | The largest number that divides evenly into each of a given set of numbers |

Intercepts | Where a graph crosses either the x-axis or y-axis. |

Least Common Multiple | The smallest quantity that is divisible by two or more given quantities without a remainder: |

Negative exponent | the reciprocal of that power with a positive exponent. |

Property | "laws" that apply to arithmetic operations: |

Proportional Relationships | One variable increases, the other one increases accordingly |

Quartile | One of four equal groups, representing a fourth of the distributed sampled population. |

Ratio | A comparison of two; numbers using division. |

Rational Coefficient | A rational number which multiplies a variable. |

Rational Number | A number that can be expressed as a ratio of two integers. |

Relative Frequency | The ratio of the actual number of favorable events to the total possible number of events. |

Right Prism | A prism where the lateral faces are at right angles to the base. |

Right Rectangular Prism | A prism with six rectangular faces where the lateral edge is perpendicular to the plane of the base. |

Right Rectangular Pyramid | A pyramid that has its apex aligned directly above the center of its rectangular base. |

Right Triangle | A triangle that has one 90º angle. |

Sample Space | The set of all Possible outcomes of a random process. Die {1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6} |

Scale Drawing | A drawing of an object or structure showing all parts in the same proportion of their true size. |

Signed Number | Positive or negative number. |

Simulation | Carrying out a simple experiment to collect data. |

Spread | A measure of how much a collection of data is spread out. Commonly used types include range and quartiles. (Also known as measures of variation or dispersion.) |

Statistical Variability | A variability or spread in a variable or a probability distribution. Common examples are the variance, standard deviation, and interquartile range. |

Statistics | The science of collecting, organizing, representing, and interpreting data. |

Supplementary Angles | If the sum of the measures of two angles is 180°. Two angles that form a straight line. |

Surface Area | The total area of the faces (including the bases) and curved surfaces of a solid figure. |

Surface Area (cube) | Sum of the area of all 6 sides |

Surface Area (right prism) | Surface Area = lateral area + area of two ends |

Triangle | A polygon with three angles and three sides. |

Unlikely Event | An event that will probably not happen. An outcome with a probability between 0 and 0.5. |

Volume | The number of cubic units it takes to fill a figure. |

Volume (right prism) | V = area of base • length |

X-coordinate | In an ordered pair, the value that is always written first. |

Y-coordinate | In an ordered pair, the value that is always written second. |

Exponent | A mathematical notation indicating the number of times a quantity is multiplied by itself. |

Base | The number that is going to be raised to a power. |

Order of Operations | The order in which operations in an expression to be evaluated are carried out. 1. parentheses 2. exponents 3. multiplication and divison 4. addition and subtraction (PEMDAS). |

Communitive Property of Addition | States that changing the order of the addends does not change the sum (a+b) = (a+b). |

Associative Property of Addition | Changing the grouping of terms will not change the sum, (a + b) + c = a + (b + c) |

Additive Identity OR Identity Property of Addition | The sum of any number and zero is the original number |

Communitive Property of Multiplication | The order of the numbers in the expression does not change the product |

Associative Property of Multiplication | Changing the grouping of factors will not change the product, (ab)c = a(bc) |

Multiplicative Identity OR Identity Property of Multiplication | The product of any number and 1 is equal to the original number (a x 1 = a) |

Distributive Property of Multiplication | Multiplying a number by another number is the same as multiplying its addends by the number, then adding the products |

Variable | A letter that stands for a number that can vary or change |

Evaluate | Solve; substitute a number for the variable |

Integer | The set of whole numbers and their opposites |

Absolute Value | The distance a number is from zero on a number line |

Prime | A number that has only 2 factors: 1 and itself |

Coefficient | A number used to multiply a variable |

Constant | A fixed value. In Algebra, it is a number on its own, or sometimes a letter such as a, b or c to stand for a fixed number. |

Factors | Numbers you multiply together to get another number. |

Composite | A whole number that can be divided evenly by more than 1 or itself. |

Operations | A mathematical process. The most common are add, subtract, multiply and divide (+, -, ×, ÷ ). |

Grouping Symbols | Symbols used to group operations and that must be performed first. ({[ |

Exponential Form | A way to write an expression such as 8x8x8 in a compact way. (8 to the third power) |

Standard Form | Basic numerical way to write a number. |

Perfect Squares | A number made by squaring a whole number. |

Zero Pair | Created when a pair of numbers, one positive and the other negative, equals a sum of zero |

Square Root | A value that, when multiplied by itself, results in a given number. |

Number Line | A diagram that represents numbers as points on a line. |

Ordered Pair | A pair of numbers that gives the coordinates of a point on a grid in this order (horizontal coordinate, vertical coordinate). |

Origin | The intersection of the x- and y-axes in a coordinate plane, described by the ordered pair (0, 0). |

Percent | A special ratio that compares a number to 100 using the symbol %. |

Percent Decrease | New amount minus original amount divided by the original amount. |

Percent Error | Predicted value minus actual value divided by actual value. |

Percent Increase | New amount minus original amount divided by the original amount. |

Plane Sections | The area created by a plane cutting through a solid. |

Polygon | A closed figure formed from line segments that meet only at their endpoints. |

Population | The entire collection of items that is the focus of concern. Can be of any size and while the items need not be uniform, the items must share at least one measurable feature. |

Prediction | To state in advance on the basis of observation, experience, or scientific reason. |

Principal | The amount lent or borrowed. |

Prism | A 3-dimensional figure that has two congruent and parallel faces that are polygons. The remaining faces are parallelograms. |

Probability | The chance that a particular outcome will occur, measured as a ratio of the total possible outcomes. |

Proportion | An equation showing that two ratios are equivalent. |

Proportional Relationship | Relationship between two variable quantities x and y, where y is a constant multiple (k) of x. This can be expressed in the simple equation, y = kx. |

Protractor | A tool used to measure and draw angles. |

Pyramid | A polyhedron whose base is a polygon and whose other faces are triangles that share a common vertex. |

Quadrants | The four sections of a coordinate grid that are separated by the axes. |

Quadrilateral | A four-sided polygon. |

Quotient | The result of the division of one quantity by another. |

Random Sample | A selection that is chosen randomly (purely by chance, with no predictability.) |

Rate | A ratio comparing two different units. The car was traveling 65 miles per hour on the freeway. |

Angles | formed by two rays with the same endpoint |

Area | the number of square units needed to cover a flat surface |

Base | the number or expression that is used as a factor in a repeated multiplication |

Coordinate Grid | a plane formed by horizontal and vertical lines and used to locate points |

Cubic Inches | volume of solids is measured in these units |

Cylinder | a 3-dimensional figure that has 2 congruent circular faces (soup can) |

Cylindrical | having the form of a cylinder or tube |

Dimensions | measurements in width, length, and sometimes depth |

Equation | a mathematical sentence that shows that two expressions are equivalent |

Equilateral | having all sides equal in length |

Equilateral Triangles | a triangle with three congruent or equal sides and three congruent angles |

Formula | An equation that states a rule for the relationship between certain quantities |

Gallons Per Minute | The amount of water consumed by flow fixtures (lavatory faucets, showerheads, aerators, sprinkler heats). |

Generator | a machine that changes mechanical energy into electric power |

Isosceles Triangles | a triangle that has at least 2 congruent sides |

Obtuse Isosceles | One obtuse angle and the 2 legs are congruent |

Rectangle | a parallelogram with four right angles |

Rectangular Prism | A solid (3-dimensional) figure which has six faces that are all rectangles. |

Right Isosceles | This type of triangle has a right angle and 2 sides equal in length (congruent). |

Right Scalene | This type of triangle has a right angle and all sides are different lengths. |

Square Inches | the dimension in inch units for area of a square |

Total Amount | the whole amount, the answer from adding, subtracting, multiplying, and/or dividing |

Best describes | best explains, most suitable, or appropriate detailed account in words |

Closest | The shortest distance from a point; near or close to answer |

Cost per Hour | price paid for work done on an hourly basis |

Evenly | equally ; uniformly |

Heights | high places |

Represents | To stand for; symbolize |

Side View | a view from the side of something, shows depth and height, |

Situation | the way things are at a certain time, the state of what's happening |