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CHEM 1010 Test 1

Chapters 1-3

QuestionAnswer
Matter Anything that has mass and takes up space
States of matter Solid, liquid, gas
Physical properties All properties that do not involve chemical reactions
Chemical properties The chemical reactions a substance undergoes
Chemical change/Chemical reaction Substances are used up (disappear) and others are formed to take their places
Physical changes Change where the identity of the substances do not change; most involve changes of state
Calculation for density d=m/v
Calculation for specific gravity Density in g/mL / 1.00 g/mL (it is unitless/dimensionless)
Classifications of matter Matter -> pure substances and mixtures. Pure substances can be divided into elements, which chemically combine to form compounds. Mixtures can be divided into homogenous and heterogenous matter.
Diatomic elements O2, H2, N2, F2, Cl2, Br2, I2
Three subatomic particles of an atom Proton, electron, neutron
Proton A subatomic particle that has a positive charge (+1) and a mass of approximately 1 amu; it is found in a nucleus
Electron A subatomic particle with a charge of -1 and a mass of approximately 0.0005 amu. It is found in the space surrounding a nucleus
Neutron A subatomic particle with a mass of approximately 1 amu and a charge of zero; found in the nucleus
Mass number The sum of the number of protons and neutrons in an atoms nucleus
Atomic number Number of protons in an atoms nucleus
Isotopes Atoms with the same number of protons but different numbers of neutrons
Atomic weight The weighted average of the masses of the naturally occurring isotopes of the element. The units are amus
Periods and groups 7 periods and 18 groups
Hydrogen H
Lithium Li
Sodium Na
Potassium K
Rubidium Rb
Cesium Cs
Francium Fr
Beryllium Be
Magnesium Mg
Calcium Ca
Strontium Sr
Barium Ba
Radium Ra
Fluorine F
Chlorine Cl
Bromine Br
Iodine I
Astatine At
Helium He
Neon Ne
Argon Ar
Kr Krypton
Xenon Xe
Radon Rn
Ununoctium Uuo
Manganese Mn
Iron Fe
Cobalt Co
Copper Cu
Silver Ag
Lead Pb
Tin Sn
Ground state electron configuration The lowest possible energy level of an atom
How many "s" orbitals are there 1
How many "p" orbitals are there 3
How many "d" orbitals are there 5
How many "f" orbitals are there 7
Argons electron configuration (18) 1s2 2s2 2p6 3s2 3p6
Valence shell Outermost occupied shell of an atom
Valence electron An electron in the outermost occupied shell of an atom
Ionization energy Increases as you go up and to the right; the energy required to remove the most loosely held electron from an atom in the gas phase
Anion An ion with a negative electric charge
Cation An ion with a positive electric charge
Octet rule When undergoing chemical reaction, atoms of group 1A-7A elements (main group elements) tend to gain, lose, or share sufficient electrons to achieve an election configuration having eight valence electrons
Ammonium NH4+
Hydroxide OH-
Nitrite NO2-
Nitrate NO3-
Acetate CH3COO-
Cyanide CN-
Permanganate MnO4-
Chromate CrO4^2-
Dichromate Cr2O7^2-
Hydrogen carbonate HCO3-
Sulfite SO3^2-
Hydrogen sulfite HSO3-
Sulfate SO4^2-
Hydrogen sulfate HSO4-
Phosphate PO4^3-
Hydrogen phosphate HPO4^2-
Dihydrogen phosphate H2PO4-
Maximum number of electrons in each orbital Two
Shell 1 One 1s orbital, can hold 2 electrons
Shell 2 One 2s and three 2p orbitals, can hold eight electrons
Shell 3 One 3s, three 3p, and 5 3d orbitals, can hold 18 electrons
Atomic radius trends For main group elements, atomic radii increase going down a group and decrease going from left to right across a period
Ionic bond A chemical bond resulting from the attrition between positive and negative ions (metal and non-metal)
Covalent bond A chemical bond resulting from the sharing of electrons between two atoms (two non-metals)
Nonpolar covalent bond A covalent bond between two atoms whose difference in electronegativity is less than 0.5
Polar covalent bond A covalent bond between two atoms whose difference in electronegativity is between 0.5 and 1.9
Ionic bond A bond whose difference in electronegativity is greater than 1.9
Single bond A bond formed by sharing one pair of electrons and represented by a single line between two atoms
Double bond A bond formed by sharing two pairs of electrons and represented by two lines between the two bonded atoms
Triple bond A bond formed by sharing three pairs of electrons and represented by three lines between the two bonded atoms
Geometry of an atom surrounded by two groups Linear
Geometry of an atom surrounded by three groups Trigonal planar
Geometry of an atom surrounded by four groups with four covalent bonds Tetrahedral
Geometry of an atom surrounded by four groups with three covalent bonds Tetrahedral Trigonal pyramidal
Geometry of an atom surrounded by four groups with two covalent bonds Tetrahedral Bent
Bonds can be polar but depending upon the geometry of the molecule, they can be non polar
Created by: AliRutherford