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# Experiments

### Physics Experiments

Experimentthings to remember
Constant velocity of a metal rider on an air track *level air track so rider travels with constant velocity *attach card of length l *record time card breaks light gate for t *calculate velocity using v=l/t
Measure constant acceleration of a rider on an air track *attach card of length l *connect newtons to rider *measure t1 on first light gate and t2 on the second *record distance s between two light gates *calculate acceleration by v^2=u^2+2as i.e: a=v^2-u^2/2s
Measure 'g' acceleration due to gravity using free fall apparatus and a scalar timer *GRAPH *measure distance s from bottom of ball to vibration plate *measure range of values for t and pick smallest *use variation of s=ut+1/2at^2: a=g and u=0, g=2s/t^2 *g= 2(slope of graph)
To show that a∝f *GRAPH *all but one newtons on rider, other one on pan connected, move one each time *record: :length of card l :times t1 and t2 :the distance between the light gates s :the mass of the newtons on the pan m *u=l/t1 and v=l/t2 *a=v^2-u^2/2s *f=m(kg)x9.8
Verify the principle of conservation of momentum *one light gate before second rider *one light gate after second rider *record mass of rider&card and other rider (m1 & m2) *u1=l/t1 u2=0 *v1=v2=l/t2 *m1u1 + m2u2 = v(m1+m2)
To verify Boyle's law i.e. p∝1/v *GRAPH *Boyle's Law apparatus *pump air into inlet of oil reservoir until pressure is at max *wait for temp to settle *record :volume of air column :pressure reading from gauge *increase the pressure *record range of values
The Laws of equilibrium for a set of co-planar forces *find weight of metre stick (mg) *use string to find centre of gravity and record point *hang weights and suspend from newton spring balances *adjust until horizontal equilibrium *get sum of clockwise and anticlockwise moments (=0) *resultant force=0
Relationship between period and length & calculate 'g' *GRAPH *length as long as possible *swing: with angle<5° :in one plane only *record :length l :the time T for 50 oscillations *dec. length and record range *calculate :T1 time for 1 oscillation and T^2 :l/T^2, all values should be approx. same g=4π^2(l/T^2)
Plot the calibration curve of a themometer *GRAPH *ungraduated thermometer *mercury thermometer *place both thermometers in :ice :vaious temps of heating water :boiling water *record temp. against length
Measure the Specific Heat Capacity of water: Electrical Method *find mass of calorimeter mc and mass of water mw *measure temp. of cold water & calorimeter Θ1 *switch on joulmeter and current and allow temp. rise of 15°C *record reading on joulmeter Q and highest temp. reached Θ2 *use E=(mcΔΘ)w+(mcΔΘ)c
Measure Specific Latent Heat of Fusion of Ice *crush and dry ice (0°C)Θi-ice *get mass of calorimeter mc & water mw *heat water 5°C above room temp. Θi-water *add ice stir, temp. to 5°C below room temp.Θf *mass of all after *(mcΔΘ)i+(ml)i=(mcΔΘ)w+(mcΔΘ)c *find l
Measure Specific Latent Heat of Vaporisation of Water *mass of calorimeter mc & water mw *cool water 5°C below room temp. Θi *generate steam with steam trap *heat to 5°C above room temp. Θf *get new mass of all after *use (mcΔΘ)s+(ml)s=(mcΔΘ)w+(mcΔΘ)c *find l
The Focal Length of a Concave Mirror *GRAPH *non symmetrical letter (object) *get approx. focal length *make sure object distance>approx. focal length *get sharpest image on screen *get: distance u and v *repeat with range of u *formula: 1/f=1/u+1/v *find f
To Verify Snell's Law and hence measure the refractive index of glass. *GRAPH *two pins mark incident ray *method of no parallax 2 pins on opposite side (emergent ray) *mark: around block, rays in & out, normal. *join incident and emergent ray to get refracted ray *protractor: measure angle of i and r *find sini/sinr of range
Refractive index of a liquid by measuring real and apparent depth *fill beaker to top, pin at bottom *other pin in retord stand *line up image in mirror and pin in water *back of mirror to pin in retord stand = apparent depth *back mirror to bottom of beaker = real depth *refractive index=real/apparent
Focal length of a convex lens *GRAPH *same as concave mirror
Measure the wavelength of Monochromatic light *laser 90° to wall(metre stick) and diffraction grating *n=0 at 50cm mark *measure distance from n=0 to n=1, n=2 & n=3 *use trig TanΘ=o/a to find Θ for each n value *formula: nλ=dSinΘ to figure out λ(wavelength) *d=1/x÷1000 when x is in mm
Investigate the variation of the fundamental frequency of a stretched string with length f∝1/l *GRAPH *sonometer length as long as possible *tension constant value: when lowest frequency causes resonance *strike next highest tuning fork and adjust length until resonance occurs *get range of values: f, l & 1/l *all values of fxl should be approx same
Investigate the variation of the fundamental frequency of a stretched string with tension f∝√T *GRAPH *length about 1/3 of max length- keep constant *use lowest frequency tuning fork and adjust tension until resonance occurs *record range of values for tension and frequency
To measure the Speed of Sound in air using a Resonance tube. *GRAPH *using fork of highest frequency, adjust length until loudest sound occurs *record length l (top of water to top of tube) and frequency f *Repeat with different frequencies *Measure internal diameter of resonance tube fix to 0 error *c=4f(l+0.3d)
Demonstrate Ohm's Law *GRAPH *circuit with rheostat, power supply, coil of wire, voltmeter & ammeter *by varying rheostat, current and p.d are varied *measure a series of values for I and corresponding V *I∝V
Verify Joule's Law: Change in temp. due to a current ∝ I^2 (ΔΘ∝I^2) *GRAPH *circuit: power supply ammeter rheostat heating coil *known volume of water:calorimeter *current of 0.5A & start clock *note time passed *turn off, stir and note highest temp. reached *repeat with larger I values *all ΔΘ/I^2 values should be equal
To measure resistivity of the material of a wire *check micrometer for 0 error & note *measure diameter: a few points, correct & get average *ensure wire is straight & clamp to metre stick *switch on ohmmeter & connect probes *allow for resistance of leads *resistance between 2 points *ρ=Rπd^2/4l
Investigate the variation of the resistance of a Metallic Conductor with temperature *GRAPH *coil of wire to ohmmeter note resistance *boiling tube of glycerol, note temp (also temp. of coil) *measure approx. resistance of coil *measure resistance of leads (subtract) *fill beaker with cold water *for each 10°C rise record resistance &temp.
Investigate the variation of Resistance of a thermistor with temperature *GRAPH *thermistor to ohmmeter note resistance boiling tube of glycerol, note temp. (also temp. of thermistor) *measure approx. resistance of thermistor *heat *for every 10°C rise, record temp. and resistance
Investigate variation of current (I) with p.d (V) :Metallic Conductor :Filament Bulb :Copper Electrodes :Semi-conductor *D.C power supply *Ammeter *Rheostat *Voltmeter *Adjust rheostat and begin with small p.d *Measure and record p.d (v) and current (I) *Repeat and increase p.d. and record range of values **semi-conductor forward: milli-out, reverse: micro-in
Created by: Nya411