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OAT - Chem

Chapter 9 - Solutions

Solutions homogeneous mixtures of substances that combine to form a single phase (liquid usually); solute dissolved in solvent
Solvent is in greater quantity and phase remains the same after mixing
Solute move about freely in solvent and interacts w other molecules/ions
Solvation/Dissolution interaction btwn solute and solvent molecules; results in aqueous soln/hydration when water is solvent
Solubility max amount of a substance that can be dissolved in a particular solvent as a particular temp
Saturated when max amount of solute has been added and soln is in equilibrium
Dilute when proportion of solute to solvent is small
Concentrated when proportion of solute to solvent is large
Solubility Rules 1. alkali metals, ammonium (NH4+), chlorides, bromides, iodides, sulfates, CaO SrO BaO, are water soluble 2. carbonates, phosphates, sulfites, sulfides, hydroxides, and metal oxides insoluble
-ous lesser charge like ferrous is Fe2+
-ic larger charge like cupric is Cu2+
Monotomic Anion ending -ide like phosphide is P3- and nitride N3-
Nitrite NO2-
Nitrate NO3-
Sulfite SO3 2-
Sulfate SO4 2-
Hypochlorite HCLO-
chlorite HCLO2-
chlorate HCLO3-
Perchlorate HCLO4-
Dihydrogen Phosphate H2PO4-
Phosphate PO4-3
Carbonate CO3-2
Permanganate MnO4-
Chromate CrO4-2
Strong electrolyte conductive and dissociates completely into ions like HCl and NaCl in water
Weak electrolyte ionizes/hydrolyzes incompletely in water like weak acids, weak bases, HgCl2
Nonelectrolytes do not ionize at all in water; like nonpolar gases, O2 and sugar
Concentration (defn) amount of solute dissolved in solvent
Percent Composition (mass of solute/mass of solution) x 100
Mole Fraction number of moles of compound/total moles of system; sum of mole fractions = 1
Molarity mol/L
Molality mol solute/kg solvent
Normality gram equivalent of solute/L solution; molarity of the ion of interest
Dilution when one adds solvent to a high concentation soln to make a lower concentration soln; MVi=MVf
Solubility Product Constant Ksp Ksp = [An+]m[Bm-]n
Qsp > Ksp supersaturated solution, precipitate will occir
Qsp < Ksp no precipitate will occur, dissolution until soln is saturated
Qsp = Ksp saturated soln
Created by: JaeBae4444