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OAT - Chem

Chapter 8 - Phases and Phase Changes

Condensed Phases liquids and solids
Liquids have def volumes, can't be expanded/compressed, disorder, molecules can evaporate and diffuse
Solutions liquids can mix to form ____
Miscibility degree to which two liquids can mix
Emulsion when two immiscible liquids are shaken to make a homogeneous mixture
Solids strong attractive forces, molecules held tightly together, vibrate about fixed positions, dense shape/volume, crystalline or amorphous
Crystalline an ordered structure; 3-D geometric arrangement with repeating patterns
Amorphous like glass; no 3-D arrangement
2 types of crystalline metallic and ionic crystals
Ionic Crystals high bp and mp, poor conductivity, no discrete molecules, aggregates of ions
Metallic Crystals metal atoms packed tightly, single element, high mp and bp, strong covalent bonds
Unit Cells 3 types, simple cubic, body-centered cubic, and face-centered cubic
Evaporation/Vaporization liquid to gas; a cooling process
Condensation gas to liquid; pressure forces gas molecules back into liquid phase
Vapor Pressure equilibrium reached btwn vaporization and condensation. rates are equal
boiling point temp at which the vapor pressure equals the external pressure
Fusion/Melting solid to liquid; occurs at melting point
solidification/crystallization/freezing liquid to solid; occurs at freezing point
Sublimation solid to gas directly; dry ice
Deposition gas to solid directly
Gibbs Function G must be zero for an equilibrium so for sublimation, Gs=Gg
Triple Point point on phase diagram where all three phases are in equilibrium
Critical Point Point B where the temp and P causes there to be no distinction btwn liquid and gas
Raoult's Law one can determine the relationship btwn vapor pressure of vapor A and concentration of liquid A in soln
Freezing-Point Depression Tf= Kf(m); m is molality
molality mol solute/kg solvent
Boiling-Point Elevation Tb = Kb(m)
Osmotic Pressure pressure exerted to counterbalance tendency of water to flow across membrane; high to low concentration; = MRT, M is molarity
Molarity M; mol/L (n/V)
Created by: JaeBae4444