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Meter The standard unit of measuring distance
Kilogram The base unit for mass
Second The base unit for time
Kelvin The SI unit for temperature
Square Meters How to measure area
Cubic Meters Measurement of volume
Litres Measurement of capacity
Kilograms per Cubic Meter Measurement of density
Meters per Second Measurement of velocity
Velocity Directional speed
Vector Directional force
Scaler Non-directional force
Relative Density (aka Specific Gravity) Density of object divided by density of water or air (the base)
Metals Pure metals, ferrous, alloys
Pure metal Not referring to the substance only containing metal, but that it is only one element of metal.
Ferrous Containing iron
Alloys A mix of two or more elemental (pure) metals
Steel Iron and Carbon
Stainless Steel Iron, Carbon, Chromium, Nickel
Brass Copper and Zinc
Solder EITHER Lead and Tin or Tin and Copper
Bronze Copper and Tin
Gun metal Copper, Tin and Zinc
Plastic Polymers of Ethane (Carbon, Hydrogen and Oxygen) Thermo-plastics and Thermo-setting-plastics
Thermo-plastic Soften when heated to become malleable. Poor heat conductors, affected by UV, resistant to acids and alkalis. Think waste pipes
Therm-setting-plastics Once cooled any attempt to melt them will burn them. Think baths.
Fireclay / Ceramics Baking (firing) clays and sands produces roof tiles, Belfast sinks, mortar, concrete, bathroom tiles, bricks
Strength Compressive or Tensile
Compressive How much it can be squashed
Tensile How much it can be stretched
Hardness Measured from 1-10. Ability of a substance to resist being scratched
Ductility Bent out of shape without snapping
Malleability Worked without breaking
Conductivity (heat) How well a material allows distributes heat through itself
Conductivity (electricity) How well a material allows electricity to pass through it
Oxidise Chemical process that adds oxygen to a substance
Ultraviolet Radiation Light beyond the visible spectrum. Has a heating effect. Damages chemical bonds
Molecular Bond A 'bond' between atoms in a molecule
Rust Iron Oxide. Oxidisation of Iron is speeded up by salt, pollutants and temperature
Electrolytic Corrosion When a metal is exposed to water, sometimes the atoms dissolve into the water as ions. This stops a metal functioning according to design.
Ion A charged atom
Anodic Quick to dissolve in contact with Hydrogen Ions
Cathodic Slow to dissolve in contact with Hydrogen Ions
Hydrogen Ion A single Proton
Friction Resistance to motion due to roughness of surfaces
Ineria An objects' want to maintain its' state of motion or rest
Erosion Corrosion The wearing away of a material due to dissolution or friction.
Water 2H+ and O2-
Solvent Other substances can dissolve in this substance
Solute This substance can be disolved
Refrigerant Ammonia, Chloroflourocarbons (CFCs), Propane and Hydroflourocarbons (HFCs). Used to cool systems. Utilise latency.
Latent Heat A substance requires more energy to move between states than heat up in the state it is in. This causes the measurable temperature rise to stall
Sensible Heat A substance within its own state will increase by a set temperature for every joule of energy
Anti-Freeze Liquid added to water to lower the freezing point
Fuel Oils Produced by distillation of petroleum used to generate heat.
Distillation Heating liquids until gases then sucking vapours to separate compounds
Lubricants Designed to reduce friction.
Compound A substance of two or more elements chemically joined.
Boiling point (Water) 99.98 degrees C or 373.13 K
Freezing point (Water) 0 degrees C or 273.15 K
Superheated If pressure forces liquids to stay liquids above their boiling point intense pressure is generated.
Gravity Weak force of attraction between objects.
Cohesion Weak force of attraction between polar molecules
Capillary Action The phenomenon where a water climbs a short way up a narrow tube due to cohesion
pH The measure of acidity or alkalinity of a substance
Permanent Hard Water Calcium Sulphate solution
Temporary Hard Water Calcium Carbonate solution
Compressed Air Pneumatic tools use compressed air to operate, such as a nail gun firing a nail.
LPG Liquid Petrolium Gas. Used for gas torches and off-grid cookers
Natural Gas Used for Power generation and on-grid gas cookers
Carbon Dioxide Piped around factories as compressed gas for pneumatics. Also in fire extinguishers and refrigeration.
Refrigerant Gasses Used for air-con. Includes ammonia, CO2, methane, SO2, R22 (chlorodiflouromethane), E134A (tetraflouroethane) and mixes.
Natural Gas (boiling point) -163 degrees C
Carbon Dioxide (boiling point) -79 degrees C
R22 -41 degrees C
R134A -26 degrees C
Boyle's Law The higher the pressure, the lower the volume (given a gas of given mass, at a set temperature).
Charles' Law The higher the temperature, the greater the density (given a gas of given mass in a set volume)
Bimetallic Strip A make-break contact that uses the different expansions of metals to cause the contact to bend.
Thermometer Uses the direct expansion of alcohol or mercury to gauge temperature.
Digital Thermometer A thermistor changes electrical resistance according to temperature and causes the digital value to change
Conduction Heat transfer through a substance via vibration of atoms
Convection Heated fluids cause a current to form, distributing energy evenly within the fluid.
Radiation Heat transfer without a substance to move in. Simply described as heat waves
Energy The ability to 'do work' on a substance. Measured in Joules.
Temperature The measure of the degree of hotness (the ability of a substance to propagate heat to another substance)
Heat The total energy associated with the vibration of molecules.
Joules SI unit for energy. 1 Joule is equal to 1 Watt x 1 Second
Specific Heat Capacity The amount of energy required to raise 1kg of a substance by 1degree C. kJ/kg*C
Watt SI unit for power. 1 Watt is equal to 1 Joule per 1 Second
Force The push or pull that acts on an object
Pressure Force per unit area
Pascal 1Pa is equal to 1Newton per Meter squared
Newton The force required to accelerate 1kg 1m/s
Flow Rate Cubic meters per Second
Bar 100,000 Pascals (used in compressed gas cylinders)
psi Pounds per square inch (outdated but still used on old cylinders)
Metre head 1m of head = 1m of column water above valve or washer
Cubic metres per second Flow rate
Kilograms per second Flow rate as derived from SI units
Pressure head Pressure from metre head on valve or washer
Dynamic pressure Density and velocity of fluid Q = 1/2 pv^2
Static pressure Density x Gravity x Height
Mechanical advantage The measure of force gained by using a mechanical device
Velocity ratio Ratio of distance moved by the effort applied to the load: distance moved by the load itself
Lever Class 1: See-saw Class 2: Wheelbarrow Class 3: Tweesers
Wheel and axel First class lever
Pulley Number of rope lengths directly proportional to division of load
Screw Translates rotational motion into linear motion
Moment The turning effect of a force
Newton's 1st Law An object will retain its state of perpetual rest or motion, unless acted upon by an unbalanced force
Newton's 2nd Law If acted upon by an unbalanced force, an object will accelerate
Newton's 3rd Law For every action there is an equal and opposite reaction
Centre of Gravity The point at which the body would be balanced if suspended
Equilibruim No resultant force or acceleration
Electricity The flow of charged particles
Cell -l |-
Potential Difference Voltage or Electromotive Force
Voltage The measure of energy available to to drive the flow of electrons
Electromotive Force Voltage or Potential Difference
Resistance Anything that slows the flow of charged particles. Measured in Ohms
Current Flow of electrons between two points. Measured in Amperes (Amps)
Conductor A substance that allows an electric current to flow
Insulator A substance that does not allow an electric current to flow
Joule 1Amp through 1Ohm in 1Second
Alternating Current (AC) Produced by turbine generators. Used in most buildings powered from the National Grid. Electrons flow in waves like the tide
Direct Current (DC) Produced by chemical generators. Electrons flow in one direction like a river
Ohm's Law V=IR
Power Consumption kW/h (Watts used per unit time)
Coulomb 1 Coulomb is 1 Amp x 1 Second
Over-Current device A tool to stop excess current damaging a circuit. The size is taken as the value immediately above the current rating of the equipment on the circuit. (for instance, a 10A hoover would require a 13A fuse)
Resistance in a Series Circuit Rt = R1+R2+R3 (etc)
Resistance in a Parallel Circuit 1/Rt = 1/R1+1/R2+1/R3 (etc)
Series Circuit Circuit where the components share the current. The Voltage is split.
Parallel Circuit Circuit where the components share the power supply. The Current is split
Circuit Breaker A safety device that cuts the current flow to a device in fault conditions
Earthing and Bonding Copper, or green and yellow. Safety cable that carries a current under fault conditions only
Live A conductor that carries a current under normal working conditions
Line Brown or red conductor. Carries the current from the supply to the load
Neutral Blue or black conductor. Carries the current from the load back to the supply
Created by: BCOTelec