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OAT - Chem

Chapter - 6 Thermochemistry

Spontaneous rxn under a given set of circumstances, the rxn can occur by itself without outside assistance
System the particular part of the universe being studied
surroundings/environment everything outside of the system
Isolated System cannot exchange matter or E with surroundings
Closed System can exchange E but not matter with surroundings
Open System can exchange both matter and E with surroundings
Isothermal Temp of system remains constant
Adiabatic No heat exchange occurs, volume remains constant
Isobaric Pressure of the system remains constant
Heat form of E that can easily transfer to or from a system; from warmer system to cooler system
Endothermic positive, heat absorbed
Exothermic negative, heat lost
1 cal 4.184 J
Heat Equation q = mcat
State Functions properties whose magnitude depends only on initial and final states of system; P V T
Enthalpy H; heat changes at constant pressure; products - reactants
Standard Heat of Formation Hf; enthalpy change that occurs if one mole of a compound were formed directly from its elements in standard state
Hess's Law enthalpies of rxns are additive
Heat of Vaporization from liquid to gas Hv
Bond E/Bond Dissociation E avg of the E required to break a type of bond in one mole of gaseous molecules
Bond Breakage is always... endothermic
Bond Formation is always... exothermic
Bond E equation bonds broken+bonds formed (reactants-products)
Entropy measure of the disorder or randomness of a system (J/K); products-reactants
Entropy Spontaneous means entropy of system increases, more disorder
Gibbs Free E G; max amount of E released by a process; G = H - TS
G is negative spontaneous, H negative
G is positive nonspontaneous, H positive
G is zero equilibrium
If H and S are positive rxn is spontaneous at high temps
If H and S negative rxn is spontaneous at low temps
When H G or S is followed by a degrees symbol the rxn occurs during standard conditions of T and P
G degrees equation G degrees= -RT ln Keq but when rxn starts Keq becomes Q
Q rxn quotient
G equation G = G degrees + RT ln Q
R gas constant
Created by: JaeBae4444