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OAT - Chem

Chapter 3 - Bonding and Chemical Interactions

these bind together to make molecules atoms
chemical bonds intramolecular strong bond
intermolecular forces weaker force
Octet Rule atoms tend to bond with other atoms until it has 8 electrons in outermost shell to become stable like Nobles
What the octet rule doesn't apply to Hydrogen
Ionic Bonding e- transferred from atom with low IE to atom with high electron affinity; electrostatic forces
Covalent Bonding electrons are shared btwn 2 atoms; can be single double or triple
Polar Covalent Bonding partially covalent and partially ionic bonding
Cation loses e- and becomes
Anion gains e- and becomes
Bond Order number of shared electrons between atoms (1,2,3 for single double triple)
Bond Length avg distance btwn the 2 nuclei of atoms involved; the more e- shared, the shorter the BL
Bond E E required to separate 2 atoms
bonding electrons shared e- of covalent bond
nonbonding electrons e- not involved in covalent bond
lone e- pairs unshared e- pairs
Lewis Structure chemical symbol of an element surrounded by dots, each representing a valence e-
Steps to Lewis Structure 1. draw skeletal structure, least electronegative in middle, halogens and hydrogen on ends 2. Count up the valence electrons 3. complete octets 4. Shared e- are lines, lone pairs are dots
Formal Charges V-1/2bonding-nonbonding; or if it is missing a valence e- then +1 and vice versa
Resonance two or more nonidentical Lewis structures for a molecule
Resonance Hybrid the actual molecule is a mix of the resonance structures
Polar Covalent Bond like HCL and H2O, partially ionic character
NonPolar Covalent Bond H2, Cl2, O2
Lewis Acid can accept electrons to form covalent bond
Lewis Base can donate lone pair of electrons to form covalent bond
VSEPR determines geometry of molecules
Linear 2 regions of electron density, 180 degrees
Trigonal Planar 3 regions of electron density, 120 degrees
Tetrahedral 4 regions of electron density, 109.5 degrees
Trigonal Bipyramidal 5 regions of electron density, 180-120-90 degrees
Octahedral 6 regions of electron density, 180-90 degrees
Axial elements up and down
Equitorial elements on "equator" of molecules surrounding central atom
1 lone pair on a trigonal planar molecule bent shape
1 lone pair on tetrahedral molecule trigonal pyramid
2 lone pairs on tetrahedral molecule bent shape
1 lone pair on trigonal bipyramid Seesaw shape
2 lone pairs on trigonal bipyramid T-shape
3 lone pairs on trigonal bipyramid linear
1 lone pair on octahedral square pyramid
2 lone pairs on octahedral square planar
3 lone pairs on octahedral T-shape
4 lone pairs on octahedral linear
A polar bonding molecule must have what to be polar net dipole moment or else it is nonpolar
l = 0, 1, 2, 3 s, p, d, f
m +l to -l
s sphere shape
p peanut shape
when orbitals have same sign bonding orbitals
when orbitals have opposite signs nonbonding orbitals
when orbitals overlap head to head sigma bond
when orbitals overlap parallel pi bond
Dipole-Dipole Interaction when 2 polar molecules come into close contact with each other; pos of one close to neg of other
H-Bonding F O N; strongest
Dispersion Forces short-lived dipoles; large molecules have greater forces, also London Force
Created by: JaeBae4444



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