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World History II SOL

SOL 6a-6c: The Age of Revolutions, part one

TermDefinition
Nicolaus Copernicus 6a: (1473-1543) Polish clergyman. Sun was the center of the universe; the planets went around it. Developed heliocentric theory.
Johannes Kepler 6a: Hypothesized that the earth and other planets orbit the sun in elliptical (oval) patterns; not circles
Galileo Galilei 6a: Italian astronomer. One of the founders of Europe's scientific revolution, known for the application of the telescope to astronomy. He was able to prove Copernicus' heliocentric model correct.
Isaac Newton 6a: English scientist who formulated the law of gravity
William Harvey 6a: Hypothesized that the heart circulated the blood around the body.
Heliocentric Theory 6a: Idea that everything revolves around the sun; studied by Galileo and Copernicus
Scientific Revolution 6a: A major change in European thought, starting in the mid-1500s, in which the study of the natural world began to be characterized by careful observation and the questioning of accepted beliefs
Absolute monarchy 6b: A system of government in which the head of state is a hereditary position and the king or queen has almost complete power
Louis XIV 6b: Known as the Sun King, he was an absolute monarch that completely controlled France. One of his greatest accomplishments was the building of the palace at Versailles as a symbol of royal power
Palace of Versailles 6b: A palace built in the 17th century for Louis XIV southwest of Paris near the city of Versailles as a symbol of royal power
Peter the Great 6b: Russian tsar from 1689-1725. He enthusiastically introduced Western languages and technologies to the Russia; moved the capital from Moscow to the new city of St. Petersburg.
English Civil War 6b: War between Cavaliers (supporters of the king) and the Roundheads (supporters of Parliament; led by Oliver Cromwell) over control of England
Oliver Cromwell 6b: English leader of the Roundheads (supporters of Parliament) during the English Civil War; led them to victory over the Cavaliers; called for execution of King Charles I; Later ruled England as a dictator
Charles I (1600-1649) King of England, Scotland, and Ireland from 1625 to 1649; his conflict with Parliament started the English Civil War. He was beheaded in 1649.
Charles II Eldest son of Charles I; after Cromwell's dictatorial rule, Parliament asked Charles II to rule
Glorious Revolution 1688. Bloodless political revolution. James II leaves England; daughter Mary and her husband William are invited by Parliament to rule England. They agree to constitutions limits; they rule with Parliament and agree to a Bill of Rights.
English Bill of Rights King William & Queen Mary signed this in 1689; guaranteed rights to English citizens. This created a limited monarchy, a system in which they shared their power with Parliament and the people.
Roundheads Led by Oliver Cromwell, this was a group mainly consisting of puritans, country land owners, and town based manufacturers; fought against the Cavaliers during the English civil war
Cavaliers Charles I's private forces that remained loyal to him throughout the English Civil War
Restoration The time period in which monarchs (Charles II) took power in England again. This followed Oliver Cromwell's rule.
Created by: mrbayne