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OAT - Chem

Chapter 2 - Periodic Table

rows on periodic table periods
columns on periodic table groups
representative elements valence electrons are in s and p subshells
Nonrepresentative elements includes transition elements; valence electrons are in d subshells too
Atomic Radius trend Period: decreases cuz elements hold on to their electrons tighter Group: increases bcuz new outer layers make elements bigger
Ionization E E required to remove an electron from a gaseous atom or ion
Ionization E Trend Period: increases cuz it gets harder to take an electron from the element since the electrons are more tightly bound Group: decreases bcuz electrons are farther from nucleus making it easier to remove them
Electron Affinity the ease with which an atom can accept an electron
Electron Affinity Trend Period: Increases cuz halogens really want one more electron to fill octet Group:
Electronegativity measure of the attraction an atom has for electrons in a chemical bond
Electronegativity Trend Period: increases (F is most electronegative) cuz halogens really want extra electron to fill octet Group: decreases
malleability ability of a metal to be hammered into shapes
ductility ability of a metal to be drawn into wires
metals on left side and in middle of PT; good heat/electricity conductors; electrons can be removed easily
Nonmetals right side of PT; poor conductors; high electronegativity and ionization E; gain electrons easily
Metalloids semimetals; B Si As Te Ge Sb
Alkali Group 1 metals; react with Halogens well, low electroneg, low IE, high atomic radius, 1 e-
Alkaline Group 2 metals; low electroneg and IE, smaller radius than alkali, 2 e-
Halogens Group 7, highly reactive, 7 e-, high electroneg and IE, small atomic radius
Noble Gases Group 8, nonreactive, full octets, no electroneg, super high IE
Transition Metals d-block, hard, high mp and bp, low IE, positive oxidation states
Oxidation States ability of an atom to oxidize/reduce another atom in chemical compound, related to e- gained, lost, or used
Created by: JaeBae4444