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Chemistry Terms

Chemistry Terms; Viroqua 2nd term

QuestionAnswer
What type of reaction is this: Two or more substances combine to form a new substance. Synthesis
What type of reaction is this: Synthesis reaction in which a substance reacts with oxygen to produce energy in the form of heat and light. (CO2 and H2O always produced) Combustion
What type of reaction is this: One substance breaks down into two or more simpler substances. Decomposistion
What type of reaction is this: One element replaces another in a compound. Single Displacement
What type of reaction is this: A metal undergoes corrosion and it loses electrons to form cations. Oxidation-Reduction
What type of reaction is this: Two elements replace each other in a compound. Double Displacement
What is it called when an Acid-Base reaction has only one acid? Monoprotic
What is it called when an Acid-Base reaction has two acids? Diprotic
What is it called when an Acid-Base reaction has many acids? Polyprotic
What occurs when a solution of an acid and base are mixed? Neutralization
What are the two products of the neutralization process? Water and Salt
The calculated maximum amount of a product. Theoretical Yield
The amount of a product recovered. Actual Yield
Actual Yield/ Theoretical Yield Percent Yield
Waves that are produced by electric charges. Electro Radiation
The distance between the same spot on two waves. Wavelength
Number of waves passing a fixed point per second. (Measured in hertz (Hz).) Frequency
What is the equation C=3.00*10^8 m/s for? Velocity
In what state is an atom with no excess energy? Ground State
In what state is an atom with excess energy? Excited State
When Electrons only have specific amounts of energy. Quantized Energy
What is a region of space with ninety percent probability of holding one electron called? Orbital
How many electrons can an S orbital have? Two
How many electrons can a P orbital have? Six
How many electrons can a D orbital have? Ten
How many electrons can a F orbital have? Fourteen
Does atomic size increase or decrease from the top to the bottom on the periodic table? Increase
Does atomic size increase or decrease from the left to the right of the periodic table? Decrease
Does ionization energy increase or decrease from the top to the bottom on the periodic table? Decrease
Does ionization energy increase or decrease from the left to the right of the periodic table? Increase
A force holding atoms together. Bond
Amount of energy required to break a bond. Bond Energy
What type of bond transfers electrons and exists between metals and non-metals? Ionic Bond
What type of bond shares electrons equally? Covalent Bond
What type of bond shares electrons unequally? Polar Covalent Bond
The ability of an atom to attract shared electrons. Electronegativity
When the overall molecule has two poles. Dipole Moment
The structure that uses an electron dot configuration to show the structure of molecules. Lewis Structure
Which element is the only element that needs two electrons to be stable? Hydrogen
In the octet rule, most elements need how many valence electrons to be stable? (Exception BF3) Eight
What is it called when there is more than one valid way to draw a molecule's structure? Resonance
What shape is this? H-H Linear
What shape is this? H_ _H :o: Bent
What shape is this? O // _C_ H H Trigonal Planer
What shape is this? .. H -N- H / H Trigonal Pyramid
What shape is this? H / H-C-H / H Tetrahedral
What is it called when something is mixed with water? Aquueous
Which is present in the largest amount, Solute or Solvent? Solvent
Which is dissolved, Solute or Solvent? Solute
How do scientists classify a solution that is weak or has very little solute? Dilute
How do scientists classify a solution that has a lot of solute? Concentrated
How is a solution classified if more solute can be dissolved? Unsaturated
How is a solution classified if no more solute can be dissolved? Saturated
How is a solution classified if if contains more solute than it should? Supersaturated
You can stir, increase the temperature, and increase the surface area to help what dissolve quickly in a liquid? Solids
You can decrease temperature, and add pressure (DO NOT AGITATE) to help what dissolve quickly in a liquid? Gases
The number of grans of solute that can be put into 100 g or 100 mL of H2O is called what? Solubility
What is the term for the concentration of H+ or OH- in one mol/L? Normality
In which model does it say that acids produce H+ in solution? Arrhenius Model
In which model does it say that acids are proton donors? Bronsted-Lowry Model
In which model does it say that bases produce OH- in solution? Arrhenius Model
In which model does it say that bases are proton accepters? Bronsted-Lowry Model
This has an extra proton (H+) (Conjugate Acid or Conjugate Base?) Conjugate Acid
This has given up a proton (H+) (Conjugate Acid or Conjugate Base?) Conjugate Base
Strong Acids have _______ conjugate bases. Weak
Weak Acids have _______ conjugate bases. Strong
What it is called when the acidic H is attached to an oxygen. Oxyacid
The Carboxyl groups (which are usually weak) are also called this. Organic Acids
A technique in which a solution of known concentration is used to determine the concentration of another solution. Titration
The name of solutions with precisely known concentrations. Standard Solution
Just enough acid to neutralize the base, or enough base to neutralize the acid. Equivalence Point
A solution that resists changes in pH and are make from a weak acid and conjugate base. Buffered Solution
Created by: ericahowe4474