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OAT - Chem

Chapter 1 - Atomic Structure

chemistry study of the nature of matter
atom basic building block of matter, smallest unit, made of subatomic particles
proton/neutron make up the nucleus
protons carry single positive charge; 1 amu
Z atomic number, number of protons for an element
Neutrons carry no charge, slightly larger than protons, isotopes have diff these but the same protons
A mass number, protons + neutrons
Electrons carry single negative charge, hella small mass
Valence electrons electrons farthest from nucleus
reactivity valence electrons and their activity determine ___ of an atom
atomic weight weight in g/mol using avogadro's number
isotopes species of atoms with same number of protons but diff number of neutrons
How to find atomic weight given percentages and amu multiply percentage with correct amu and then add those numbers up
A-Z amount of neutrons
Planck's Constant h; 6.626x10^-34 Js
quanta bundles of electromagnetic radiation E
The smaller the radius of an electron the lower the E state of the electron
orbitals representation of the probability of finding an electron within a given region
Heisenberg Uncertainty Principle states that it is impossible to determine with perfect accuracy the position and momentum of an electron simultaneously
Pauli Exclusion Principle no two electrons in a given atom can have the same set of 4 quantum numbers
energy state position and E of an electron described by quantum numbers
Principle Quantum Number n; the larger the number, the higher the E lvl and radius of electron's orbit
Azimuthal Quantum Number L; angular momentum; sublevels of each E lvl; ranges from 0 to n-1; 0, 1, 2, 3 = s, p, d, f
Magnetic Quantum Number m.e.; specifies the particular orbital within a sublevel where an electron is likely to be found; L to -L
Spin Quantum Number m.s.; intrinsic angular momentum; two orientations 1/2 and -1/2
How to determine what subshell is filled first n + L, whichever is lower gets filled first
Hund's Rule within a given subshell, orbitals are filled such that there are a max number of half-filled orbitals with parallel spins
Paramagnetic if the material has unpaired electrons and attract atom
Diamagnetic no unpaired electrons and slightly repelled
Created by: JaeBae4444