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Chemical Reactions

QuestionAnswer
synthesis 2 reactants, 1 product
synthesis with reactants: binary salt and oxygen product:a chlorate
synthesis with reactants: metallic oxide and water product: a hydroxide
synthesis with reactants: metallic oxide and carbon dioxide product: a carbonate
decomposition 1 reactant, 2 products
decomposition with reactant: carbonate products: metallic oxide and carbon dioxide
decomposition with reactant: hydroxide products: metallic oxide and water
decomposition with reactant: chlorate products: binary salt and oxygen
single replacement reactants: element and compound, products: element and compound; switch the element with its same charged ion in the compound (+ with +, - with -)
double replacement reactants: 2 compounds, products: 2 compounds; switch either the cations or the anions with each other
combustion products: hydrocarbon(C_H_) and oxygen, products: carbon dioxide and water
double replacement: sulfide and acid H2S and a salt
double replacement: carbonate and acid CO2 and H2O and a salt
double replacement: sulfite and acid SO2 and H2O and salt
double replacement: ammonium salt and soluble strong hydroxide NH3 and H2O and a salt
acid and base salt and water
oxidation number of hydrogen when bonded to metals -1
oxidation number of hydrogen when not bonded to metal +1
oxidation number of Group 1A metals +1
oxidation number of Group 2A metals +2
oxidation number of F -1
IMF directly related to MP, BP, enthalpy of fusion, enthalpy of vaporization
strength of IMF depend on distance btw ion and dipole (closer=stronger attraction), charge on ion (higher charge=stronger attraction), magnitude of dipole (larger=stronger attraction)
polarizibility increases with greater # of electrons, more diffuse electron cloud (bigger), and molar mass (if homologous series)
IMF relation to Vapor Pressure stronger IMF = lower VP
Temperature relation to vapor pressure higher temp = higher VP (more molecules will evaporate)
ionic crystal properties hard, brittle, high melting points, poor conductors of heat and electricity
atomic/network crystal properties stronger than IMF but weaker than ionic crystals, hard, high melting point (lower than ionic), poor conductors of heat and electrcity
molecular crystal properties soft, low melting points, poor conductors of heat and electrcity
metallic crystals soft or hard, low or high melting points, good conductors of heat and electrcity
heat of fusion solid to liquid
heat of vaporization liquid to gas
heat of sublimation solid to gas
heat of condensation gas to liquid
atomic radius: down a group increases: increase in energy levels. force of attraction decreases
atomic radius: across a period decreases: increase in nuclear charge (more protons). force of attraction increases
ionization energy: down a group decreases: larger atomic radius, decrease in force of attraction, decreased hold on electrons
ionization energy: across a period increases: smaller atomic radius, increase in force of attraction, tighter hold on electrons
electronegativity: down a group decreases: atomic radius increases, decrease in force of attraction, looser hold on electrons, not as much energy needed to attract an electron
electronegativity: across a period increases: atomic radius decreases, increase in force of attraction, tighter hold on electrons. more energy needed to attract an electron
ionic radius: down a group increases: number of energy levels increase
ionic radius: across a period decreases, trend repeats at beginning of anions: increased nuclear charge, increased force of attraction
electron affinity: down a group less favorable (more positive): atomic radius increases, force of attraction decreases
electron affinity: across a period more favorable (more negative): atomic radius decreases. force of attraction increases
relationship between partial pressure and mole fraction P1/Ptotal=n1/ntotal
Kinetic Molecular Theory 1) particles are in constant motion 2)collisions between particles are completely elastic, no attraction or repulsions 3) large amount of space between particles 4) speed of particles increases with increasing temp\
non-ideal gas conditions high pressure (less space, more likely to attract), low temp (not as much KE, move slower, more likely to attract)
to find the number to multiply emprical formula by... molecular formula mass/ empirical formula mass
exponents of rates are only coefficients in a mechanism
differential rate law expression rate= k[A]^x[B]^y (only use reactants)
two states of matter not included in rate expression solids and liquids (concentration has no effect)
half life of first order reaction 0.693/k
integrated rate law for zero order reaction [A]=[A]o-kt plot of [A] vs t gives straight line slope is negative
integrated rate law for first order reaction ln[A]= ln[A]o-kt plot of ln[A] vs t gives straight line slope is negative
integrated rate law for second order reaction 1/[A]= (1/[A]o) +kt plot of 1/[A] vs t gives straight line slope is positive
factors affecting reaction progress KE of colliding particles Orientation of particles Frequency of Collisions Activation Energy (Ea)
factors affecting rates temperature, concentrations of reactants, surface area of reactants, catalysts, pressure of gaseous reactants or products
breaking bonds_____ energy releases (exothermic)
forming bonds _____ energy requires (endothermic)
enthalpy of reaction = products-reactants
calorimetry: q= m(SH)(dT)
process is spontaneous when entropy is... positive
entropy increases with increased randomness of particles (solid to gas), heated, increased molar mass, increased amount of particles
dS surr = -dH/T
when dH is neg. and dS is pos., dG is negative at all temps
when both dH and dS are neg., dG is negative at low temps, positive at high temps
when both dH and dS are pos., dG is negative at high temps, positive at low temps
when dH is positive and dS is negative, dG is positive at all temps
at equilibrium, dG = -RT(lnK)
at nonstandard conditions, dG= dGo + RT(lnQ)
at equilibrium dG is 0 (K=1)
in spontaneous reactions, dG is negative
lattice energy is directly related to _____ and inversely related to _____ charge of ions; size of ions
polar molecule is unequal distribution of electrons throughout the molecule
polar bond is unequal distribution of electrons in one bond in a compound
formal charge= # of VE -(electron in lone pairs + 1/2 bonded electrons)
molecule with 2 bonds and 0 lone pairs linear
molecule with 1 bond and 1 lone pair linear
molecule with 3 bonds and 0 lone pairs trigonal planar
molecule with 2 bonds and 1 lone pair bent
molecule with 1 bond and 2 lone pairs linear
molecule with 4 bonds and 0 lone pairs tetrahedral
molecule with 3 bonds and 1 lone pair trigonal pyramidal
molecule with 2 bonds and 2 lone pairs bent
molecule with 1 bond and 3 lone pairs linear
molecule with 5 bonds and 0 lone pairs trigonal bipyramidal
molecule with 4 bonds and 1 lone pair see-saw
molecule with 3 bonds and 2 lone pairs t-shaped
molecule with 2 bonds and 3 lone pairs linear
molecule with 6 bonds and 0 lone pairs octahedral
molecule with 5 bonds and 1 lone pairs square pyramidal
molecule with 4 bonds and 2 lone pairs square planar
when using bond energy to find enthalpy... reactants-products
increasing concentration of a reactant results in shift toward products
increasing concentration of a product results in shift toward reactants
decreasing conc. of reactants results in shift toward reactants
decreasing conc. of product results in shift toward products
increasing pressure by decreasing volume results in shift toward side with fewer gaseous molecules
adding an inert gas results in shift toward neither, no effect
increasing temperature results in shift toward products (exothermic favored)
decreasing temperature results in shift toward reactants (endothermic favored)
Created by: 100000570442216