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Unit 2 AQA A Level Chemistry

Size of atoms going down the group? Atoms get bigger going down the group due to increasing no.s of main energy levels
Electronegativity going down the group? Electronegativity decreases down the group as the shared pair of e- get further away from the nucleus and shielding increases as the no. of main energy levels increases
Melting/boiling points down the group? Melting/boiling points increase down the group because down the group no. of e- increases so van der Waals forces between molecules get stronger
Oxidising power going down the group? Oxidising power decreases down the group- fluorine is an incredibly powerful oxidising agent.
Displacement trend? The halide in a compound will be displaced by a more reactive (higher up the group) halogen
Reducing power of the halides going down the group? Reducing power of the halides increases down the group (larger ions more easily lose e-)
Sodium chloride + hot conc. sulphuric acid: Observation? Redox reaction? Steamy fumes hydrogen chloride,solid sodium hydrogensulphate formed. Is not a redox reaction as choride ions v.weak reducing agents
Sodium bromide + hot conc. sulphuric acid: Observation? Redox reaction? Steamy fumes hydrogen bromide, brown bromine fumes, colourless sulphur dioxide. Redox.
Sodium iodide + hot conc. sulphuric acid: Observation? Redox reaction? Steamy fumes hydrogen iodide, black solid iodine, hydrogen sulphide gas, yellow solid sulphur, colourless sulphur dioxide. Redox.
Method to identify metal halides? Dilute nitric acid added to remove impurities (e.g carbonate or hydroxide ions). Few drops silver nitrate solution added.
Silver nitrate test result for FLUORIDE ions No ppt.
Silver nitrate test result for CHLORIDE ions White ppt. Dissolves in dilute ammonia.
Silver nitrate test result for BROMIDE ions Cream ppt. Dissolves in conc. ammonia.
Silver nitrate test result for IODIDE ions Yellow ppt. Does not dissolve in conc. ammonia.
Reaction equation for chlorine with water Cl2 + H2O <---> HClO + HCl
Define disproportionation When the oxidation state of some atoms of the same element increases and in others decreases.
Reaction equation for chlorine with water in sunlight 2Cl2 + 2H2O ---> 4HCl + O2
Reaction equation for sodium chlorate added to water NaClO + H2O <---> Na+ + OH- + HClO
Reaction equation for chlorine with an alkali Cl2 + 2NaOH ---> NaClO + NaCl + H2O
Created by: 1536520048



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