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Key Definitions

Unit 2 AQA A Level Chemistry

Endothermic Reaction A reaction that (overall) takes in energy from the surroundings. +ve delta H value
Exothermic Reaction A reaction that (overall) gives out energy into the surroundings. -ve delta H value
Enthalpy Change Temperature change caused by a reaction at constant pressure
Activation Energy The minimum energy required for a reaction to occur successfully/for collisions to be succesful
Nucleopile An electron pair donor
Primary Alcohol An alcohol in which the OH group is bonded to a carbon that is bonded to one other carbon
Secondary Alcohol An alcohol in which the OH group is bonded to a carbon that is bonded to two other carbons
Tertiary Alcohol An alcohol in which the OH group is bonded to a carbon that is bonded to three other carbons
Standard Molar Enthalpy Change of Bond Dissociation The enthalpy change required to break one mole of the same covalent bonds under standard conditions, all species in the gaseous state
Standard Molar Enthalpy of Combustion The enthalpy change when one mole of compound is completely burned in oxygen under standard conditions, all reactants and products in their standard states
Standard Molar Enthalpy of Formation The enthalpy change when one mole of compound is formed under standard conditions from its elements in their standard states
Hess' Law The total enthalpy change of a reaction is independent of the route taken
Dynamic Equilibrium When the forward and backward reactions are occurring at the same rate and so the concentration of the reactants and products remains constant. It occurs in a closed system.
Le Chatelier's Principle If a system at equilibrium is disturbed, the centre of equilibrium moves in the direction that tends to reduce the disturbance and minimise the change.
Catalyst Reduces the activation energy by providing an alternative route for the reaction.
Reduction Gain of electrons and a decrease in oxidation state
Oxidation Loss of electrons and an increase in oxidation state
Reducing Agent Reducing agents donate electrons (and so cause reduction)
Oxidising Agent Oxidising agents accept electrons (and so causes oxidation)
Created by: 1536520048



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