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Extraction of Metals

Unit 2 AQA A Level Chemistry

Metal/QuestionEquations/Process/Answer
Iron in the blast furnace Carbon dioxide formed: C+O2-->CO2 Carbon monoxide formed: CO2+C-->2CO Carbon monoxide reduces the iron oxide: Fe2O3+3CO-->2Fe+3CO2
Copper with scrap iron Cu2+ + Fe ---> Cu + Fe2+
Extraction of Tungsten WO3+3H2-->W+3H2O
Aluminium electrolysis -ve electrode: 2Al3+ + 6e- --> 2Al +ve electrode: 3O2- --> 1.5O2 + 6e- Overall equation: Al2O3-->2Al+1.5O2
Extraction of Titanium Titanium oxide to titanium chloride: TiO2+2C+2Cl2-->TiCl4+2CO Liquid titanium chloride distilled then reduced with molten sodium in an argon atmosphere: TiCl4+4Na-->Ti+4NaCl
How can metals be recycled? Melting and then reforming into new objects.
In electrolysis of aluminium, what are the electrodes made from? +ve is carbon, -ve is steel
Why do the +ve electrodes in aluminium electrolysis need to be regularly replaced? Because the oxygen formed there burns the carbon electrode to CO2
Converting sulphide ores to oxides Roasting (heating in air): xS+1.5O2 --> xO+SO2 (x=metal)
Converting the sulphur dioxide produced in roasting to sulphuric acid SO2+H2O+0.5O2-->H2SO4
Why can titanium or tungsten NOT be extracted using coke? Brittle carbide forms
Main cost of electrolysis? Electricity
In aluminium electrolysis, what is the aluminium oxide dissolved in and why? Cryolite, as it has a much lower melting point than pure aluminium oxide
What is a reducing agent? Reducing Agents Donate electrons (RAD)
Copper with coke 2CuO+C-->2Cu+CO2
Created by: 1536520048