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Chemistry terms

Chemistry terms chapters 8- 16

TermDefinition
Precipitation The formation of a solid in a chemical reaction
Strong Electrolyte A substance that dissolves in water by dissociating completely into ions
Soluable Solid A solid that readily dissolves in water
Insoluable Solid A solid that dissolves to such a small degree that it is not detectable to the naked eye
Molecular Equation A chemical equation showing the complete forms of all reactants and products
Complete Ionic Equation A chemical equation for a reaction in solution representing all strong electrolytes as ions
Spectator Ion An ion presents in solution that does not participate in a reaction
Net Ionic Equation A chemical equation for a reaction in solution showing only those components that are in directly involved in the equation. Strong electrolytes are shown as ions
Acid A substance that produce H+ ions when it is dissolved in water
Base A substance that produces OH- ions in water
Strong Acid An acid that completely dissociates to produce H+ ions in solution
Strong Base A base that completely dissociates to produce OH- ions in solution
Oxidation- Reduction Reaction A chemical reaction involving the transfer of electrons
Double- Displacement Reaction AB+CD= AD+CB
Single- Replacement Reaction A+ BC= B+AC
Combustion Reaction A chemical reaction involving oxygen as one of the reactants that produces enough heat so that a flame results
Synthesis/ Combination Reaction A chemical reaction where a compound is formed from simpler materials
Decomposition Reaction A chemical reaction in which a compound is broken down into simpler compounds, or to the component elements
Stoichiometry The process of using a balanced chemical equation to determine the relative masses of reactants and products involved in a reaction
Limiting Reactant The reactant that is completely used up in a reaction
Theoretical Yield The maximum amount of given product that can be formed when the limiting reactant is completely consumed
Percent Yield The actual yield of a product as the percentage of the theoretical yield
Wavelength The distance between two consecutive peaks or troughs in a wave
Frequency The number of waves per second that pass a given point in space
Photon A particle of electromagnetic radiation
Orbital The 3- dimensional region in which there is a high probability of finding an electron in an atom
Electron Confirguration The arrangement of electrons in an atom
Valence Electron The electron in the outermost principal energy level of an atom
Core Electron An inner electron, an electron not in the outermost principal energy level of an atom
Metalloids A few elements that exhibit both metallic and nonmetallic behavior
Ionization Energy The amount of energy required to remove an electron from a gaseous atom or ion
Chemical Bond The force that holds two or more atoms together and makes them function as a unit
Bond Energy The amount of energy required to break a chemical bond
Ionic Compound The compound that results when a metal reacts with a nonmetal
Ionic Bonding The attraction between oppositely charged ions
Covalent Bonding A type of bonding in which atom share electron
Polar Covalent Bind A covalent bond in which the electrons are not shared equally because one atom attracts the shared electrons more than the other atom
Electronegativity The tendency of an atom in a molecule to attract shared electrons to itself
Dipole Moment A property of a molecule in which the charge distribution can be represented by a center of positive charge and a center of negative charge
Lewis Structure A representation of a molecule or polyatomic ion showing how valence electrons are arranged among the atoms in the molecule or ion
Bonding Pair A pair of electrons that are shared between two atoms forming a covalent or polar- covalent bond
Lone Pair Electron pairs in a Lewis structure that are not involved in bonding
Single Bond A covalent or polar covalent bond in which one pair of electrons is shared by two atoms.
Double Bond A covalent or polar covalent bond in which two pairs of electrons are shared by two atoms.
Triple Bond A covalent or polar covalent bond in which three pairs of electrons are shared by two atoms.
Resonance A condition occurring when more than one valid Lewis structure can be written for a particular molecule
Molecular Structure The 3- dimensional arrangement of atoms in a molecule
Solution A homogeneous mixture
Solvent The dissolving medium in a solution
Solute The substance dissolved in the solvent to make a solution
Aqueous solution A solution with water as a solvent
Saturated Describes a solution that contains as much solute as will dissolve at that temperature
Unsaturated Describes a solution in which more solute can dissolve than is dissolved already at that temperature
Supersaturated Describes a solution that contains more solute that a saturated solution will hold at that temperature
Concentrated Describes a solution in which a relatively large amount of solute is dissolved in a solution
Dilute Decribes a solution in which a relatively small amount of solute is dissolved in a solution
Molarity The amount of solute in moles and the volume of the solution in liters
Standard Solution A solution in which the concentration is accurately known
Dilution The process of adding solvent to a solution to lower the concentration of solute
Equivalent of an Acid The amount of acid that can furnish one mole of hydrogen ions (H+)
Equivalent of a Base The amount of base that can furnish one mole of hydroxide ions (OH-)
Equivalent Weight The mass (in grams) of one equivalent of an acid or a base
Colligative Property A property that is dependent only on the number of solute particles present in solution
Normality The equivalents of solute in liters of solution
Arrhenius Concept of Acids and Bases Acid produce (H+) ions in solution, Bases produce (OH-) in solution
Conjugate Acid The substance formed when a proton is added to a base
Conjugate Base The remaining substance when a proton is lost from an acid
Conjugate Acid- Base Pair Two substances related to each other by the donating and accepting of a single proton
Hydronium Ion H30+
Diprotic Acid An acid that can furnish two protons
Oxyacid An acid in which the acidic proton is attached to an oxygen atom
Organic Acid An acid with a carbon- atom backbone and a carboxyl group
Amphoteric Substance A substance that can behave either as an acid or a base
Indicator (acid- base) A chemical that changes color depending on the pH of the solution
Indicator Paper A strip of paper coated with a combination of acid- base indicators
pH Meter A device used to measure the pH of a solution
Neutralization Reaction An acid- base reaction
Titration A technique in which a solution of known concentration is used to determine the concentration of another solution
Standard Solution A solution in which the concentration is accurately known
Buret A device used for the accurate measurement of the delivery of a given volume of a liquid or solution
Equivalence Point The point in a titration when enough titrant has been added to react exactly with the substance in solution that is being titrated
Titration Curve A plot of pH of solution versus volume of titrant added to a given solution
Buffered Solution A solution that resists a change in pH when either an acid or a base are added
Created by: MartineAntonsen