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# Thermo

### Thermodynamics

TermDefinition
Heat The total thermal energy an object has. *Depends upon the mass of the object and the speed of the object's molecules(temp) Unit: Joules!
Temperature The average thermal energy an object has. *Depends only upon how fast an object's molecules are moving. Unit: Degrees Celsius, Fahrenheit, Kelvin
Specific Heat The amount of energy required to change the temperature of a given mass of an object. Equation - Q=mC∆T Q - Heat (joules) m - mass (depends on C) C - specific heat (Units J/g*K, J/kg*K, J/g*C, J/kg*C) ∆T - Change in temp (depends on C)
Joules A measurement of energy. J
Heat of Fusion The amount of energy to take a substance from liquid-->solid or from solid-->liquid. Q=mHf Q- heat (in joules) m- mass (in g or kg) Hf- Heat of Fusion (In J/g or J/kg) *Only with Freezing/Melting Point
Heat of Vaporization The amount of energy to take a substance from liquid-->gas or from gas-->liquid. Q=mHv Q- heat (in joules) m- mass (in g or kg) Hv- Heat of Vaporization(In J/g or J/kg) *Only with Vaporization/Condensation Point
Change of State Any time a substance changes from solid>liquid, liquid>gas, gas>liquid, liquid>gas.
Thermal Energy The total amount of heat or work that an object contains or can apply.
Conduction Transfer of heat through direct contact. *Between solids
Convection Transfer of heat through fluid contact. (Air currents) Between a solid and a fluid.
Radiation Transfer of heat through radiation (light or some other form of energy wave). *Think the Sun.
Thermal Equilibrium When two objects transfer thermal energy between each other at the same rate. *Both objects will be at the same temperature when this occurs.
Heat Transfer When an object transfers its heat from its self to another object that lacks heat. *Heat transfer will always occur by heat leaving a high heat object and going to a low heat object.
Freezing Point/Melting Point The point at which an object will go from a solid to a liquid (Melting point) or from a liquid to a solid (Freezing Point)
Condensation/Vaporization Point The point at which an object will go from a liquid to a gas (Vaporization Point) or from a gas to a liquid (Condensation Point)
1st Law of Thermodynamics The change in an object's thermal energy is equal to the heat added to the system minus the work done by the system. Equation: ∆U = Q -W ∆U - Thermal Energy (In Joules) Q - Heat (In Joules) W - Work (In Joules)
2nd Law of Thermodynamics The entropy, or disorder, of energy will increase as energy moves through a system or from one system to another. Entropy = energy that is lost to the environment that cannot be harness to do work. *Entropy occurs naturally and it takes WORK to end.
Entropy The amount of disorder or lost energy that can no longer be harness to do any valuable work.
Created by: becook87