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Summer Exam

All Chapters for Summer

An Energy Level The fixed energy value that an electron in an atom may have
E = hF E is the definite amount of energy emitted from an atom
An Orbital The region in space within which there is a high probability of finding an electron
Arrhenius's Definition of an Acid An acid is a substance that dissociates in water to produce H+ ions
Arrhenius's Definition of a Base A base is a substance that dissociates in water to produce OH- ions
Bronsted Lowrey definition of a Base A base is a proton acceptor
Bronsted Lowrey definition of an Acid An acid is a proton donator
Acid changes to conjugate base When an acid donates a proton
Base changes to conjugate acid When the base accepted the proton
A Conjugate Acid-Base pair Any pair consisting of an acid and a base which differ by one proton
Neutralisation The relationship between the acid and the base to form a salt and water
Acid + Base Salt & Water
Concentration of a solution The amount of solute dissolved in given volume of solution
A 1 Molar solution It contains one mole of the solute that is dissolved in onle litre of solution
Number of Moles Volume X Molarity divided by 1000
A Titration A laboratory procedure where a measured volume of one solution is added to a known volume of another solution until the reaction is complete
A Primary Standard A substance which can be obtained in a stable, pure and soluble solid form so it can be weighed out and dissolved in water to give a solution of accurately known solution
The atomic radius of an atom Half the distance between the nuclei of 2 atoms of the same element that are joined together by a single covalent bond
The Values of atomic radius increases down any one group in the periodic table -New Shell -Screening effect of inner electrons
The values of Atomic Radius decrease from left to right across a period -Increasing Nuclear Charge -No increase in the screening effect
Ionisation Energy The energy needed to steal an electron
The first Ionisation Energy The energy required to completely remove the most loosely bound electron from a neural gaseous atom
The values of ionisation energy decrease down the groups in the periodic table -Increasing Atomic Radius -Screening effect of inner electrons
The values of ionisation energy increase across the periods -Increasing nuclear charge -Decreasing atomic radius
The values of electronegativity decrease down a group in the periodic table for 2 reasons -Decreasing atomic radius -Increasing Nuclear charge
A Gas A substance that has no well defined boundaries and diffuses rapidly to fill any container in which it is placed.
Temperature Celcius - Kelvin Can be converted from Kelvin Scale by adding 273
1 KPa 1000 Pa
1 Litre 1000cm3 / 1 Cubic Decimetre
Boyles Law At constant temperature, the volume of a fixed mass of gas is inversely proportional to its pressure
Charles's Law At constant pressure, the volume of a fixed mass of gas is directly proportional to its temperature.
Avogadro's Law Equal volumes of gases contain equal numbers of molecules, under the same conditions of temperature and pressure
At S.T.P 1 mole of any gas occupies A volume of 22.4L
An ideal gas Is one that obeys all the assumptions of the kinetic theory of gases under all conditions of temperature and pressure
Real gases differ from ideal gases: -Forces of attraction and repulsion between the molecules -The volume of the molecules is not negligible
A compound A substance that is made of 2 or more different element combined together chemically.
The octet rule When bonding occurs, atoms tend to reach an electron arrangement with eight electrons in the outermost shell
An Ion A charged ion or group of atoms
An ionic bond the force of attraction between oppositely charged ions in a compound
A transition metal A metal that forms at least one ion with a partially filled d sub level
A Molecule A group of atoms joined together. It is the smallest particle of an element or compound that can exist independently
The Valency of an element The number of atoms of hydrogen or any other monovalent element with which each atom of the element combines
Electronegativitey The relative attraction that an atom in a molecule has for the shared pair of electrons in a covalent bond
An electronegativity difference greater than 1.7 indicates ionic bond
Van der Waals Forces Weak attractive forces between molecules resulting from the formation of temporary dipoles
Dipole Dipole forces The forces of attraction between the negative pole of a molecule and the positive pole of another molecule.
Hydrogen Bonds Particular type of dipole dipole attraction between molecules in which hydrogen atoms are bonded to Nitrogen, Oxygen and fluorine.The hydrogen atom carries a partially positive charge and is attracted to the electronegative atom in another molecule.
One Mole of a substance The amount of that substance which contains 6x10(23) particles of that substance
Mass of one mole of a substance Relative atomic mass in grams
The relative molecular mass of a compound The sum of the relative atomic masses of all the atoms in a molecule of that compound
Mass of one molecule of a compound Relative molecular mass in grams
Molecular Formula = Empiricle Formula X n (n is a whole number)
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