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# Physics Assessment

### Honors Physics Final EXAM

TermDefinition
Electrostatics The study of electric charge at rest (not in motion, as in electric current)
Conservation of charge Electric charge is neither created nor destroyed. The total charge before an interaction equals the total charge after
Coulomb's law The relationship between electrical force, charge, and distance. If the charges are alike in sign, the force is repulsive; if the charges are unlike, the force is attractive
Coulomb The SI unit of electrical charge. One coulomb is equal to the total charge of 6.25 x 10^18 electrons
Conductor Any material having free charged particles that easily flow through it when an electric force acts on them
Insulator A material without free charged particles and through which charge does not easily flow
Semiconductor A material with properties that fall between a conductor and an insulator and whose resistance can be affected by adding impurities
Superconductor A material that is a perfect conductor with zero resistance to the flow of electric charge at low temperatures
Charging by Contact Transfer of electric charge between objects by rubbing or simple touching
Charging by Induction Redistribution of electric charges in and on objects caused by the electrical influence of a charged object close by but not in contact
Electrically Polarized Term applied to an atom or molecule in which the charges are aligned so that one side has a slight excess of positive charge and the other side a sleight excess of negative charge
Electric field Defined as electric force per unit charge, it can be considered to be an "aura" surrounding charged objects and is a storehouse of electric energy. About a charged point, the field decreases with distance according to the inverse-square law
Electric potential energy The energy a charged object possesses by virtue of its location in an electric field
Electric potential The electric potential energy per unit of charge, measured in volts, and often called voltage
Capacitor An electrical device that stores electric charge and energy
Electric Current the flow of electric charge that transports energy from one place to another.
Electrical Resistance The property of a material that resists electric current. Measured in ohms
Ohm's Law The statement that the current in a circuit varies in direct proportion to the potential difference or voltage across the circuit and inversely with the circuit's resistance
Direct Current Electrically charged particles flowing in only one direction
Alternating Current Electrically charged particles that repeatedly reverse direction, vibrating about relatively fixed positions
Series Circuit An electric circuit in which electrical devices are connected along a single wire such that the same electric current exists in all of them
Parallel Circuit An electric circuit in which electrical devices are connected in such a way that you only have to go through one to complete the circuit and if one load goes out, the circuit will still work
What are the three main forms of transferring charge? Friction, induction, and conduction
What are the Laws of Static Electricity? Like charges repel, opposite charges attract, and neutral objects are attracted to charged object
What are examples of insulators? rubber, wood, concrete, foam, cotton, wool, silk, glass
What are examples of conductors? salt water, platinum, copper, and iron
Electroscope A device that determines if an object is charged or not
How do you shield an object? Surrounding an object with material you can charge
When do electrons flow? When there is a potential difference
Through what pathway in the body will a current do the most damage? Through the heart
Which has less resistance thick or thin wires? Thick wires
Which has less resistance wet or dry fingers? Wet fingers
Which has less resistance warm or cool wires? Cool wires
(Calculator) A circuit that contains 100 ohms resistance has a current of two amperes. What is the applied voltage? 200 Volts
(Calculator) A circuit has an applied voltage of 200 volts that causes a 50 mA current to flow. What is the circuit resistance? 4000 Ohms
(Calculator) If applied voltage is 400 volts and resistance is 20,000 Ohms, what is the value of I? .02 Amperes
Electrical charge can be _____ or _____ negative, positive
The _____ charge comes from _____ in the atom negative, electrons
_____ charges repel and _____ charges attract like, opposite
The attraction between 2 objects depends on what 2 things according to Coulomb's law? Size of the charge and the distance
Why are Superconductors important? When cooled to very low temperatures, electrical resistance disappears
The arrows used to draw electric fields point _____ from a positive object and _____ for a negative object outward, inward
The number of arrows in an electric field show the _____ of the field and the arrows indicate the _____. As the arrows move farther apart, the field becomes _____ strength, charge, weaker
Why can't we shield from gravity? Gravity only attracts and there are no repelling parts of gravity to offset attracting parts
Gravity only attracts and there are no repelling parts of gravity to offset attracting parts A laboratory instrument that builds up a charge
What are the four parts of a circuit? Source, switch, load, and wires
Batteries, generators, and power plants are all examples of _____ _____ Voltage sources
__________ opposes the flow of charge Electrical resistance
What really does the damage in an electric shock? The current
How many Amperes does it take before your heart can contract and eventually lead to death? .065 Amps
From where does direct current usually come from? (example) A battery
What are the benefits to a series circuit? They are simple and do not use a lot of wire=cheap
What are the drawbacks to a parallel circuit? They are costly to make and are complicated
How do short circuits form? When an electric current goes through a circuit and does not meet any resistance in the form of loads or resistors.
Why are short circuits so dangerous? When a short circuit receives no resistance, the circuit may overheat and melt which could cause severe burns
magnetic force Between magnets, it is the attraction of unlike magnetic poles for each other and the repulsion between like magnetic poles
magnetic field the region of magnetic influence around a magnetic pole or a moving charged particle
magnetic domains clustered regions of aligned magnetic atoms
electromagnet a magnet whose field is produced by an electric current, It is usually in the form of a wire coil with a piece of iron inside the coil
electromagnetic induction the induction of voltage when a magnetic field changes with time. If the magnetic field within a closed loop changes in any way, a voltage is induced in the loop
Generator an electromagnetic induction device that produces electric current by rotating a coil within a stationery magnetic field. A generator converts mechanical energy to electrical energy
Transformer A device for transferring electric power from one coil of wire to another, by means of electromagnetic induction, for the purpose of transforming one value of voltage to another
Power into primary=. . . Power into secondary!
Changing the magnetic field intensity in a closed loop of wires induces . . . both current and voltage
A transformer transforms. . . Voltage
If the north pole of one magnet is brought near the south pole of another magnet, the poles will. . . attract to each other
In order to make an electromagnet, you need a . . . battery, some wire, and a nail
Which pole of a compass needle points to a south pole of a magnet? north pole
True or False: Because magnetism is slightly different from electrostatics, magnetic fields do not exist. False
True or False: Spinning electrons themselves are small magnets. True
True or False: Magnetic domains are regions in a material where clusters of atoms are randomly magnetized. False
Where are the magnetic field lines closest together in the magnetic field surrounding a bar magnet? At the poles!
In a transformer, the primary coil has twice as many loops as the secondary coil. This is a __________ transformer. Step-Down
What is the working principle behind an electric generator? Spinning a coil of wire near a permanent magnet induces a current
The electrical force between charges is strongest when the charges are. . . close together
Rub electrons from your hair with a comb and the comb becomes. . . negatively charged
If you comb your hair and the comb becomes positively charged, then your hair becomes. . . negatively charged
An electroscope is charged positively as shown by foil leaves that stand apart. As a negative charge is brought close to the electroscope, the leaves. . . fall closer together
An iron nail is more strongly attracted to which pole? North or South pole - no difference really.
True or False: Electric power can be transmitted from one place to another without the need for connecting wires in between True!
A step-up transformer increases what? Voltage
A step-up transformer has a ration of 1 to 10. Neglecting slight losses, if 100W of power goes into the primary coil, the power coming from the secondary coil is. . . 100 W
The space around a magnet contains what? A magnetic field
Is magnetism related to electricity? Yes!
What condition is necessary for an electric charge to have a magnetic field around it? It must be moving!
Is it correct to say that every electron spinning on its axis is a tiny magnet? Yes
Why are most materials not magnetic? The magnetic fields produced by the electron spin is canceled
All pieces of iron have magnetic domains, why are most iron nails not magnetic? Their domains are randomly oriented, canceling out most magnetic forces
What amount of current will produce a slight tingling sensation? 1 mA or 0.001 A
What amount of current will make your chest muscles paralyzed and you can't breathe? 18 mA or 0.018 A
What amount of current will make you not able to let go? 10-16 mA or 0.01-0.016 A
What amount of current can make your heart contract and be fatal? 65 mA or 0.065 A
Created by: mattneider

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