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Chemistry

Chapters 1-2

QuestionAnswer
derivitive made by attatching new atoms to the molecule
Dr. Roy Plunkett young scientist who discovered reflon by serendipity
Daniel Farenheit created a scale that said water froze at 32 degrees and body temp was 96 degrees (revised to 98.6
Andreas Celcius created a thermometer- used liquid mercury in a glass tube. Had 0= boiling point and 100= freezing point (later the two were switched)
state of matter whether a substance is a solid liquid or gas
kinetic-molecular theory says that all matter consists of extremely tiny particles (atoms, molecules, or ions), which are in constant motion
kinetic energy energy of motion
periodic table a table in which symbols and other info for elements are contained in boxes
chemical bond an interaction between 2 or more atoms that holds them togeter by reducing the potential energy of their electrons
chemical compound a pure substance that is composed of 2 or more different elements held together by a chemical bond
physial properties properties which can be observed and masured without changing the compostion of the substance
density the ratio of the mass of an object to its volume, which is a physical property useful for identifying substances
extensive properties depends on the amount of a substance present (exp: mass and volume)
intensive properties do not depend on the amount of a substance present (exp: melting point, density)
physical changes changes in physical properties in which the identity of the substance is perserved even though the appearence has changed
chemical change reaction in whihc one or more substances (reactants) are transformed into one or more different substances (the products)
chemical equation representation of the chhange with chemical formulas
metric system the standard system for recording and reporting measurements
SI (International System of Units) a decimal system used internationally in science
absolute zero on the kelvin scale, the lowest temperature that can be achieved
precision consistency
accuracy exact
mass the fundamental measure of the quantity of matter
subatomic particles 3 things that make up all atoms
radioactivity the phenomenon that says atoms of certain substances emit unusual waves when they disinegrate
canal rays positvely charged particles which move in oppoite direction to cathode rays and pass through hole in the cathode and were detected on opposite sides
nucleus tiny core of an atom in which the protons and neutrons are located
atomic number (z) number of protons in nucleus of atom that is unique for each element
atomic mass unit (u) the way masses of fundamental atomic particles are often expressed
mass # (A) the sum of the # of protons and neutrons in an atom
isotopes atoms with the same atomic # but different mass #
percent abundance the amount of a substance on earth
ion atom with a charge (different number of electrons)
mole 6.02 x 10 ^-23
Dalton came up with an atomic theory. thought that an atom was a uniformly dense sphere in 1800s
Crookes 1870s-> cathode ray tube-> magnet deflected the beam (wasn't sure if it was particles or light) but since it reflected, CONCLUDED IT WAS A BEAM OF PARTICLES
Thomson 1890s-> Picked up Crooke's work and concluded PARTICLES ARE NEGATIVELY CHARGED because they deflect towards positive magnet-> called them electrons MADE PLUM PUDDING MODEL
Rutherford 1911-> gold foil experiment-> concluded MOST OF THE ATOM IS EMPTY SPACE. ALL OF THE POSITIVE CHARGE AND MOST OF THE MASS IS LOCATED IN A DENSE CENTER->nucleus
metalloids have some properties of metals but aren't metals
Alkali metals group 1A
alkaline earth metals group 2A
halogens group 7A
noble gases group 8A
chemistry a study of matter and what it is made of
proton the number of these particles determines the where an element is on theperiodic table
hypothesis educated guess
atom the smallest particle of an element that retains the chemical properties of of that element
molecule substance formed when 2 or more atoms share electrons
law a proven fact
theory explanation based on a hypothesis that has been verified many times
heterogeneous mixture in which the parts are still visible and are not evenly dispersed
homogeneous a solution tat has solute evenly distributed throughout
particulate another word for subatomic
macroscopic looking at the big picture
symbolic using shorter notation to represent something
qualitative odor, color, texture, shape
electron particle found in orbitals around the nucleus of an atom
quantitative numerical data
neutron a subatomic particle that has no charge
everything is made of this matter
Created by: elze126