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# Semester 2 review

measures the heat changes associated with chemical reactions. Thermochemistry
The SI unit of Heat and energy Joules
refers to all the substances taking part in a reaction system
a measure of the average kinetic energy of the particles in a sample. Temperature
the amount of energy required to raise the temperature of one gram of water one degree Celsius. calorie
a dietary calorie (Calorie) Kilocalorie (1000 calories)
the heat content of a system Enthalpy (H)
Means "The change in" something Delta (Δ)
when energy flows into the reaction, and ΔH is positive. Feels cold to the touch. endothermic reaction
when energy flows into the reaction, and ΔH is negative. Feels hot to the touch. exothermic reaction
the amount of energy required to raise the temperature of one gram of a substance one degree Celsius Specific heat capacity, (cp)
a gas in which the particles are considered to have no density and these particles exert no attraction for each other. ideal gas
a gas whose particles have volume and feel an attraction for each other. real gas
The spontaneous mixing of gases by the random motion of their particles diffusion
a process by which gas particles pass through a small opening. effusion
the force per unit area on a surface. pressure
S.I. unit for pressure pascal
an instrument used to measure air pressure barometer
Temperature scale used when describing gasses Kelvin
states that the volume of a fixed mass of gas varies inversely with the pressure at constant temperature. Boyle's law
states that the volume of a fixed mass of gas at constant pressure varies directly with the temperature in Kelvin. Charles law
The point at which gas particles lose all their kinetic energy absolute zero
states that the total pressure of a mixture of gases is equal to the sum of the partial pressures of the component gases Law of partial pressures
mixture of 2 or more substances in a single phase Homogeneous mixture
the part of a solution that is being dissolved solute
the part of a solution that does the dissolving solvent
a solution that contains the maximum quantity of solute that dissolves at that temperature. saturated solution
A solution contains less than the maximum amount of solute that can dissolve at a particular temperature unsaturated solution
solutions that contain more solute than is “normally” possible to be dissolved supersaturated solution
reactions that occur in water aqueous solutions
solutions that conduct electricity when in solution or water electrolytes
compounds that dissolve in water but do not conduct electricity nonelectrolytes
The amount of solute in a solution concentration

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