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1314 WH Final

What is prehistory (besides awesome)? Time before writing
What was australopithecines? Where was she found? First humanlike creature. Found in southern Africa.
What’s the world’s oldest organized religion? Hinduism
How could the discovery of australopithecines, homo erectus and homo sapiens be evidence for the theory of evolution? It shows that there were different forms of “humans” from different time periods. It shows how things adapt to their environment.
What continent was the birthplace of the first homo sapiens sapiens? Africa
How did the first people get to the Americas? Land bridge that connects Russia and Africa
What and when was the Neolithic Revolution? What does Neolithic mean? When people started to farm. About 8000BCE. Neolithic means new stone.
How does increased food and security lead to cultural gains? When you don’t have to worry about food and security, you can sit back and think about art, religion, laws and other cultural things.
Where did ancient Mesopotamia begin? Between which rivers? What was the name of the first civilization there? Modern day Iraq between the Tigris and Euphrates rivers. First civilization there was Sumer.
Describe the Code of Hammurabi. How was the law based on “eye for an eye”? First written code of laws. Eye for an eye meant that you get paid back for any crime you commit.
On which river and on which continent was the Ancient Egyptian civilization founded? Nile
Who was the founder of the Israelites? What was their religion? King Solomon. Jews. Judaism.
Near which river did the earliest Indian civilization begin? Indus
Who was at the top and the bottom of the Caste System? Top = priests, bottom = untouchables
Where was Katal Huyuk? Turkey. Maybe oldest city ever.
What is irrigation? Moving water to stop floods or use for crops.
Who were the Olmec? Mexico
How did the geography of Greece make them unique? The mountains isolated them which made them unlike other civilizations.
What two works by Homer are the most important in Greek literature? Iliad and Odyssey
Describe Sparta and Athens in one word each. (You must first read the sections on each to answer correctly) Sparta = war, Athens = democracy
What was the name of the war between Athens and Sparta? Who won? Athens won the Peloponnesian War
What does philosophy translate to? Love of wisdom
Put these philosophers in order by who taught who: Aristotle, Plato, Socrates Socrates taught Plato who taught Aristotle who taught Alexander the Great
(Brock will answer) Describe the area controlled by Alexander’s Greece. All of the eastern Mediterranean and everything it touched
In what modern country could you find the ruins of Ancient Rome? Italy
What were the names of the two groups that early Rome was divided into? What did each name mean? Patricians (rich) Plebeians (poor)
What was Pax Romana? Why did it happen? Peace in Rome
What were the Twelve Tables? First Roman code of laws
How did Rome get slaves in their empire? POWs
Jesus taught the Golden Rule, which means… Treat others like you want to be treated
(Brock will answer) Who was the first Pope of the Catholic Church? Peter
Who became the first Christian Emperor of Rome? Constantine
(Brock will answer) How could the first Christian Emperor be responsible for the number of Christians in America today? He converted most of Europe. Most Americans are of European descent. Therefore, he is responsible for the amount of Christians in the world today, especially in America.
(Brock will answer) Why did Rome split? It became too big to rule.
Describe the two Romes that were left after the split? East – Byzantine Empire – religion was Eastern Orthodox and culture was very Greek – Capital was Constantinople West – Holy Roman Empire – ruled by the Catholic Church and culture was Roman and European – Capital was Rome
Where did Muhammad fit in with Moses and Jesus? Muslims see Moses and Jesus as previous prophets picked by God. Muhammad is the last prophet in their eyes.
List the Five Pillars of Islam. Pilgrimage, faith, prayer, fasting, charity
Describe the land controlled by the Arabs at the height of the Arab Empire. Read carefully section V. on pg. 36. From Egypt to India. 2nd largest land empire only to the Mongols
Who was the great king from Mali? Where did he travel? Why did he travel there? Mansa Musa went to Mecca for a pilgrimage and brought tons of gold.
What was Genghi Khan’s life’s purpose? To rule the world.
What years were known as the middle ages? 500-1500
What does “Pope” mean? Papa (father)
Where did Charlemagne spread his empire to? Most of western Europe like France and Germany.
How did Feudalism work? Kings gave land to vassals in exchange for them protecting the land. Vassals protected the land and had serfs work the land in exchange for a place to live and a little bit of crops. Most of the crops went to the vassal.
What happened in 1215? Why is it important today? Magna Carta. Great Charter signed by King John. It said nobody, even the king is above the law.
Which two groups religions fought during The Crusades? Who ultimately won? Muslims and Christians. Christians lost many holy cities.
What was the name of the empire in Rome when the Catholic Church took over? Holy Roman Empire
What is iconoclasm? The Holy Roman Empire wanted the Byzantine Empire to stop praying to icons (pictures of saints and holy figures)
Who was the most important emperor in the Byzantine Empire? Justinian
Which city did Constantinople become? Why? Istanbul because the Muslims took it over.
What were the people who later became Russians called? Rus
What part of Europe is where most of the major cities in Russia are? Eastern
What is fealty? The word for how the serfs were bound to their land.
What led to the growth in population between 1000 and 1300 in Europe? New ways of farming
What is a money economy? Where did it first take place? Not bartering, but using currency. Started in ITL.
If the Pope controlled the Papal States, what does papal mean? Pope
Why was the Inquisition formed? To find heretics
What percentage of European people died from the Black Plague? ½
Describe what happened in the Great Schism. Two popes claimed power. One was French one was Italian. Both said the other was the anti-christ.
What time period were the middle ages? 500-1500
What does pope mean? Father
What is communion? What is the Eucharist? Bread and wine/Eucharist is where the bread and wine become the body and blood
Describe what happens when someone who is Catholic dies. Purgatory, heaven or hell.
What was the inquisition? A court to try heretics
Describe gothic architecture. Pointy, holy, stained glass, flying buttresses
Describe gothic art. 2D, holy, no perspective
What was guild? What current group is it most like? Group of workers who do the same thing/ like a union
Describe a medieval city. Stinky, crowded
How was the bubonic plague spread? Rats, boats, silk road
What were some effects of the bubonic plague? Buboes, flu, death
Who fought in the 100 Years War? Who won? Who was the girl that fought in it? ENG v FR, FR Wins with the help of Joan of Arc
What does Pope mean? father
If 100 people were living in Europe at the time, how many would have died from the plague? 50
What is another term for middle ages? Medieval, dark
What's another name for trade? barter
What is monasticism? monks and nuns
What is a sacrament? Holy ritual performed by church
What is the literal transformation of the wine and bread into body and wine called? Transubstantination
Describe the inquistion in one word. court
What was the inquisition looking for? heretics
What is heresy? going against the church
what is 500-1500CE? Middle ages
Who is the most important in the Catholic Church? Pope, then cardinals, then bishops
What happens in purgatory? sins are cleaned
What are common misconceptions about Catholocism? Catholics don't pray to marry or to saints, they pray through them.
What does Renaissance mean? When did it start? Renaissance. 1300s
What is antiquity? Based on the word antique. Means old and valuable. In history, it refers to Greece and Rome.
In which two ways did eastern or Muslim people lead to the renaissance? Preserved texts from antiquity, focused themselves on learning.
What region/country was where the Renaissance began? Why was it the place? Northern Italy. It was on the Mediterranean where a lot of trade and cultural interaction happened. Also, it was rich because of the Catholic Church.
Finish the quote. The Human is the center __________________________________________________. And measure of all things
Name a rich family that commissioned art in Florence. Medici
Give three aspects of Renaissance art. Realistic, 3D, about Christianity or antiquity
Name the three leaders of the High Renaissance and one work by each. Leonardo – Mona Lisa, Raphael – School of Athens, Michelangelo – Sistine Chapel
Who was Gutenberg? Why is he important today? Invented the moveable type printing press. Made books common in Europe. Was done 400 years earlier in China by Bi Sheng.
Who was Machiavelli? Why is he important today? Wrote The Prince. Talked about how the job of officials is just to stay in power, not to serve the people. It is the basis for modern politics as well.
What were four reasons writers criticizes the Catholic Church? Indulgences, priests couldn't marry, Bible was in foreign language, priests were seen as holy
What was Luther’s job? Monk
What is an indulgence? Donating to the church for time out of purgatory
What did Luther do with his 95 Theses? Nailed them to his church’s door
How did the Catholic Church deal with Luther? Describe the Diet of Worms. He was excommunicated after he did not recant (take back his words).
What was the outcome of the Peace of Augsburg? The Holy Roman Emperor said princes of each part of Germany could choose if their provinces were Protestant or Catholic.
How did Luther’s actions affect people that eventually came to America? What is a protestant? He started Protestantism, which took over much of Europe. Today, in America, most Christians are Protestants.
Why did Henry VIII change the religion of all of England? What the new church’s name? He wanted a boy son and wanted to divorce his wife and try with a new girl. The Pope said the Catholic Church would not allow divorce, so Henry started a new church called the Church of England AKA Anglican Church.
Why did “Bloody” Mary hate Protestants? Why was she called “Bloody” Mary? She blamed Protestants for her and her mother being sent away by her dad, Henry VIII.
What did Elizabeth do for England? She brought at time of peace and cultural growth called the Elizabethan Era. It was when Shakespeare and other greats lived.
What four things came out of the Council of Trent? Church stopped indulgences, ensured Pope was in charge, must have faith AND good works to get to heaven, Bible in vernacular.
How were the Jews treated during the wars between the Catholics and Protestants? Both treated the Jews badly, they forced them into slums called ghettos.
Three reasons for exploration? God, glory, gold
Things from Arabs that Europeans took to explore. Cartography (mapmaking) compass, astrolabe
Why was Prince Henry important? Sponsored first sea exploration
Where was Prince Henry from? Portugal
First great exploring country? Portugal
Line of Demarcation Line that splits the world between SPN and POR
Who drew the Line of Demarcation? Pope
What treaty made the Line of Demarcation official? Treaty of Tordesillas
Cortez conquered who and where? Aztecs in Mexico
Pizzaro conquered who and where? Inca in Peru
Portugal controlled what South American country? Brazil
Columbian Exchange named after? Columbus
What was the Columbian Exchange? Exchange of goods from AME to EUR and vice versa.
Stuff from AME to EUR in Columbian Exchange? Tobacco, tomatoes, potaters, corn
Stuff from EUR to AME in Columbian Exchange? Horses, disease, slaves, guns
What part of the Americas did England take? VA and East Coast/Mass
What part of the Americas did France take? Mississippi and Canada
What part of the Americas did Spain take? South America, MEX, FLA
What part of the Americas did Netherlands take? New York
Crop that brought slaves to US? Tobacco
First leg of triangle trade? Manufactured goods to AFR from EUR (guns)
Second leg of triangle trade? Slaves from AFR to AME
Second leg of triangle trade called? Middle Passage
Third leg of triangle trade? AME sending raw materials to EUR
Most African slaves were … POWs Prisoners of war
Religion that spread from northern Africa to southern Africa? Christianity
Island nation in Pacific that becomes Muslim? Indonesia
What people in that island nation that became Muslim caused the change? Traders
What were the Moluccas? Spice Islands
Why did Portugal settle the Moluccas? Spices
Why didn't Europe have a big impact on the mainland? Mainland had stronger government and bigger population than the islands
Two main religions on islands in Southeast Asia? Islam and Catholicism
Main religion on mainland in Southeast Asia? Buddhism
1. Why was Louis XIV called the Sun King? He was the only source of light for his country
2. Where was Louis XIV’s palace? Describe it. 10 miles from Paris. Very opulent, rich, could hold 1000 people. Made of gold.
7. How did Peter the Great make Russia more powerful? Made it like western Europe (France and England)
8. What are three cultural changes in Russia thanks to Peter the Great? More trade, men had to cut beards, ballet
9. Why did Peter the Great move the capitol to St. Petersburg? good port to trade in, also closer to western Europe
Who was the famous explorer for China? He is known as the Chinese Columbus. Zheng He (JUNG HUH). Traveled as far as AFR by ship.
Chinese society is organized around the _____________. Family. Its more important the individual.
Name two ways that women were treated poorly in China. Kept in house/no edu/no posessions/no divorce/footbinding
1. Why did Galileo go on trial? Who brought charges against him? Believed in heliocentric universe. Catholic Church. Gal recanted.
3. Name two reasons the Church didn't like Galileo’s ideas about the universe. Earth not at center = ppl not important. Bible puts ppl as most important.
8. Who said “I think, therefore I am.”? Descartes (DAY CART) – I am only alive in my mind.
9. In your own words, describe rationalism. Using reason to solve problems.
10. What is the scientific method? Who came up with it? Systematic steps of analyzing data/Bacon
11. What was the Enlightenment? Using the scientific method to solve social problems
12. Why is Diderot important in history? Invented Encyclopedia
13. What is laissez-faire and who came up with it? “let them do what they want” Gov should stay out of the econ/Smith
14. What is the social contract and who came up with it? Rousseau/ gov takes care of the ppl, ppl allow gov to rule
15. What was Mary Wollstonecraft known for? What did she argue for? First modern feminist/equal education for women
Unit 11 Revolutions 1. What were the Three Estates and what percentage of the population was each? 1st .5%, 2nd 1.5%, 3rd 98%
2. The Third Estate wanted a national ________________ where all people will be equal. When they went to vote on it, they were locked out so they met on a __________________. Constitution, Tennis Court
3. The storming of what French prison was the official start to the French Revolution? Why did the Third Estate storm the prison? Bastille, to free their friends who the king put in prison
4. Who were the king of France and his wife during the French Revolution? How did they react to the problems? They did this twice. Louis XVI and Marie Antoinette fled from the palace twice
5. What does sans-culottes mean? What did the sans-culottes do to the king? What did they use to do it? (book example) Without fancy pants, they had the king beheaded with the guillotine
6. Marat was a supporter for the _____________. Charlotte ___________ killed him while he was in an ________________ bath because she thought the king was so awesome. (book example) Revolution, Corday, oatmeal
7. What was the Reign of Terror? Who was in charge of it? Give an example from either Nantes or Lyon. It was a time of the revolutionaries killing all their dissenters, it was led by Robespierre that burned a ship of dissenters in Nantes
8. What did Robespierre do in France in regards to religion? Give an example of what he did. He banned religion in France and renamed the churches temples of reason
9. What is nationalism? Why was the French revolutionary army a good example of nationalism? Love for your country not one specific leader. They fought for their own freedom.
10. Who voted to have Robespierre killed? What was the name of that new government? The directory, which was a weak government of 5 people that lasted about a year
11. Who committed a coup detat on the new government? What is a coup detat? Napoleon committed a coup detat which means a quick overthrow of a government
12. How much power did Napoleon have in the new French government? Total power. He called himself the emperor.
13. Describe the Napoleonic Code. How did it treat women? It was a civil code of laws that gave everyone rights in France but women.
14. Which modern day countries did Napoleon’s empire control all or part of? Which important European country didn’t get taken over thanks to their strong navy? Almost all of Europe except England and RUS
15. Why did nationalism grow under Napoleon? He either made Frenchmen proud of France’s power or the people he took over felt united to fight back against him.
16. Napoleon brought 600,000 troops to ____________. Their enemies retreated and _______ it’s own cities in the process so the French army would not have supplies. In the end, Napoleon retreated and ended up with only ____________ soldiers left. Russia, burned, 40,000
After his huge defeat, Nap was fired and sent to the island of __ which is off the coast of ____. Then, he escaped, came back and reassembled his ___, only to get pwnd by the Prussians in _____, Belgium. After that, France sent him to ________ Elba, Italy, army, Waterloo, St. Helena
4. What did Marx think would eventually happen to the bourgeoisie? The proletariat would overthrow them in a war.
5. What is the difference between pure Marxists and revisionist Marxists? Pure Marxists said the overthrow had to be violent, revisionists said it didn’t have to be
6. What is a strike? What is it used for? Strike – stoppage of work used as leverage to get more benefits from bosses
Which organization was started by Lenin? Comintern
How were Stalin’s and Lenin’s plans for the USSR different? Stalin wanted an industrial country and Lenin wanted an agricultural country
Match the dictator with their country: Mussolini, Stalin, Mao, Kim Il-sung, Ho Chi Minh, Hitler, Franco ITL, USSR, CHN, NK, VET, GER, SPN
What was Hitler’s job during WWI? Soldiers
What does Mein Kampf mean? My Struggle
Which two religions are still fighting over Palestine/Israel? Muslims and Jews
How did a lot of Africans gain the confidence to try to overthrow their colonizers after WWI? They saw the world and peoples’ freedoms
What were Gandhi’s protests mainly about? England’s colonizing of India
How were Gandhi’s protests different from those before? They were non-violent
Why did the US threaten an embargo on Japan? Japan was taking over countries in Asia and the Pacific
What two things did Hitler do before WWI that violated the Treaty of Versailles? Started the draft and sent troops to Rhineland
What was the official start of WWII? Germany invaded Poland
Describe how blitzkrieg worked. Planes bombing ahead of tanks like a steamroller
Which beach in France was stormed to start the Allies’ victory march to finally take down Hitler? Normandy
Which president decided to use the nuclear bomb? Why couldn’t FDR make the decision? Truman, FDR was dead so he wasn't making good decisions
Name the two nuclear bombs dropped on Japan and the cities where they were dropped. Little boy over Hiroshima and Fat Man over Nagasaki
Which war had more deaths: WWI or WWII? WWII
What does anti-Semitism mean? Hating Jews
Why did the Jews first flee Israel (Palestine)? To escape the Romans
Which Shakespeare play is argued to have bred anti-Semitism? The Merchant of Venice
What happened on Kristallnacht? Jewish businesses and synagogues were vandalized
____ out of every _____ Jews in Europe died during the Holocaust. 2, 3
Which organization was formed after WWII to do the job that the League of Nations couldn't do after WWI? United Nations
Which German city did a wall separate after WWII? Berlin
Who made the “iron curtain” speech? What was his position? Churchill, British Prime Minister
What does MAD stand for? What does it mean? Mutually Assured Destruction, if one side uses nukes, both sides will die
What were the names of the communist and capitalist alliances that formed after WWII? US and USSR were the two leaders of the groups. NATO and Warsaw Pact
Which country put the first person in space? Which country put the first person on the moon? USSR, USA
Which part of Korea is communist today? North
What were the wars in Korea and Vietnam fought to stop? Communism
Which country was invaded during the Bay of Pigs invasion? Cuba
What worried JFK during the Cuban Missile Crisis? Cuba having nukes
Which country controlled Vietnam since the Opium Wars? France
Which USSR and US leaders worked together to end the Cold War? Reagan and Gorbachev
What event is usually considered the end of the Cold War? It happened in Germany? The fall of the Berlin Wall
What does apartheid mean? What country practiced it? Apartness, South Africa
Who was the first feely elected president of South Africa? Where was he before he was elected? Nelson Mandela, prison
What was the name of the theocratic government that took over Afghanistan form 1996 until 2002? Taliban
Why was Iraq invaded in 2003 by the US? To find WMDs
Which three modern countries exist today since India was split after WWII? India, Pakistan, Bangladesh
People on which island near China say that they are the real China? Taiwan
Who was the leader of China during the Cultural Revolution? Mao
What is the newest country in the world? It was founded in 2011? South Sudan
Created by: rockcastle