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Ch 17 Vocabulary

Thermochemistry The study of changes in heat energy that accompany chemical rxns and physical changes
Calorimeter The heat absorbed or released in a chemical or physical change is measured with this
Temperature A measure of the average kinetic energy of the particles
Joule the SI unit of heat energy as well as all other forms of energy
Heat/Heat energy Can be thought of as the sum total of the kinetic energies of the particles in a sample of matter
Specific Heat The amount of heat nrg required to raise the temp of one gram of substance by 1C or 1K
Heat of Reaction The quantity of heat released or absorbed during a chemical reaction
Thermochemical Equation An equation that includes the quantity of heat released or absorbed during the rxn as written
Enthalpy The heat content of a system at constant pressure (Delta H)
Enthalpy Change The amount of heat absorbed or lost by a system during a process at constant pressure
Molar Heat of Formation The heat released or absorbed when 1 mole of a compound is formed by combination of elements
Heat of Combustion One mole of reactant, whereas the heat of formation is defined in terms of 1 mole of product
Hess's Law The overall enthalpy change in a rxn is equal to the sum of enthalpy changes for the individual steps in the process
Entropy A measure of the degree of randomness of the particles, such as molecules, in a system (Delta S)
Free Energy The combined enthalpy-entropy function (G)
Free-energy Change The difference between the change in enthalpy and the product of the K temp and entropy change
Reaction Mechanism The step-by-step sequence of reactions by which the overall chemical change occurs
Intermediates Species that appear in some steps but not in the net equation
Homogeneous Reactions A reaction whose reactants and products exist is a single phase
Collision Theory The set of assumptions regarding collisions and reactions
Activation Energy The minimum energy required to transform the reactants into an activated complex
Activated Complex A transitional structure that results from an effective collision and that persists while bonds are breaking and new bonds are forming
Reaction Rate The change in concentration of reactants per unit time as a reaction proceeds
Chemical Kinetics The area of chemistry that is concerned with reaction rates and reaction mechanisms
Heterogeneous Reactions Involve reactants in two different phases
Catalyst A substance that changes the rate of a chemical rxn without itself being permanently consumed
Catalysis The action of a catalyst
Homogenous Catalyst A catalyst that is in the same phase as all the reactants and products in a rxn
Heterogeneous Catalyst When the phase is different from that of the reactants
Rate Law An equation that relates reaction rate and concentrations of reactions
Rate-determining Step The slowest rate step
Created by: mross16